Skip to main content

Full text of "Abydos"

See other formats


f± 




D D D 




C2\ 



u 



cz± 



□ 






It 



o 



t^± 





D D D 




z^ 



I 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLlGE 

LIBRARY 



ABYD0 , TE^ENOS OF OS, R ,S. HEADS OF AAHMES .. AND AMENHOTEP ,. F R OMT. 




AAHMES. 




I 



| 



C ■£• ;, 



J 



\ 



1 
I 

4 



i ■ 




AAHMES. 



AMENHOTEP. 



A B Y D S 



PART I. 1902 



BY 

W. M. FLINDERS PET HI E 

Hon. D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Ph.D., 
F.R.S., Uon. F.S.A. (Scot.) 

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL [NBTITDTI ; 

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN 

MEMBER OF THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY ; 

MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES; 

EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON. 



With Chapter In/ 
A. E. WEIGALL 



TWENTY-SECOND MEMOIR OF 

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND 



PUBLISHED BY OB DEB OF THE COMMITTEE 



LONDON 

SOLD AT 

The OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND, 37, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

and 59, Temple Steeet, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

and by KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Paternoster House, Chaiung Cross Road, W.C. 

B. QUAR1TCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ; ASHER & CO., 13, Bedford Street, Coyent Garden, W.C. 

and HENRY FROWDE, Amen Corner, E.C. 

1902 



-f 



n 



5 7 



V. c& 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LTD. 

ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL. 



YORKUNiVERSIT' 

M 

IARY 



f,v»S^* ,|V HET > 



fr( - 



Bl 



•Mfc&UJ! 






EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 

president. 
SIP JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 



Uicc=prc3tCicnt0. 



Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., 

LL.D. 
Lt.-Geneeal Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.M.G., 

G.C.B. 
The Rev. Peof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. 



The Eon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.). 

Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (Krai 
Prof. Ad. Eeman, Ph.D. (Germany). 

JOSIAII MULLENS, Esq. (Australia). 

fit. Charles Hentsoh (.Switzerland). 



ibon. (Treasurers. 

H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. F. C. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.). 

Ibon. Secvctars. 
J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. 



Members of Committee. 



T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. 

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). 

Mrs. Buckman (for Pittsburg). 

Major E. B. Cassatt, B.A. 

Somers Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. 

Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). 

Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.K.S 

F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

T. Farmer Hall, Esq. 

F. G. Kenton, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. 

Mrs. McCldre. 

The Rev. W. MacGhegor, M.A. 



A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
The Marquess of Northampton. 
Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A. 
Mbs. Sara G. Stevenson (for Philadelphia). 
Herbert Thompson, Esq. 
Mrs. Tirard. 

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. 
Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C. 
E. Towry Whyte, Esq., F.S.A. 
Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson, 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



IP T 5 2 S 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

SECT. 

1. Scope of the t'Xr;i\;itioilS . 

2. The work and workers 

CHAPTER I. 
Objects feom the Royal Tombs. 

3. King Ka. Pis. i-iii . 

4. King Ro. PI. iii 

5. Small inscriptions. Pis. iv-v 

6. The pottery. Pis. vi-vii . 

7. The Aegean pottery. PL viii 

8. The stone vases. Pis. ix, x 

9. The labels, &c. Pis. xi, xii 
10. The steles, &c. PI. xiii 

1 1 , The flints. Pis. xiv, xv . 

CHAPTER II. 

The Osiris Temenos. 

1 2 . Character of the site .... 

1 3 . The early town ..... 

14. The flints. Pis. xvi-xxvi . 

15. The stone vases. PL xxvii 

16. The pottery. Pis. xxviii-xxxv 

17. The M. tombs ..... 

18. The plans of M tombs. Pis. xlviii, 

xlix 

19. The pottery and stone. Pis. xxxvi- 

xlvii ...... 

20. The date of the town and tombs 

2 1 . The slates and tools. PL 1 

22. The amulets, &c. Pis. li-liii . 



9 
9 
10 
12 
12 
14 

15 

18 

19 
23 
23 



CHAPTER III. 
The Osibis Temple. 

SECT. PAGE 

23. Position and history . . . .27 

24. Before the Xllth Dynasty. Pis. liv- 

lvii 2V 

25. Xllth and XHIth Dynasty. I'ls.lviii- 

lx 28 

26. The XVlIIth Dynasty. Pis. Lxi-lxiv 29 

27. The XlXth Dynasty. Pis. lxv-lxvii . 31 

28. The XXVIth Dynasty, and later. 

Pis. lxviii-lxx . . . .31 



CHAPTER IV. 
The Cemetery G. 

29. Range of the cemetery 

30. Early tombs 

31 . Tomb G. 57. Pis. lxxii, lxxiv 

32. Construction of the later tombs 

33. Tomb of Zedher. Pis. lxxv, lxxix 

34. Other tombs .... 



CHAPTER V. 

The Inscriptions. 

By A. E. Weigall. 

35. Monuments of Vlth-XIth Dynasty 

36. The Xllth and XHIth Dynasty 

37. The XVIIIth and XlXth Dynasty . 

38. Monuments of Un-nefer 

39. The XXVIth and XXVIIIth Dynasty 

40. Sarcophagi, XXXth Dynasty 

41 . The hypocephali .... 
42. Inscriptions nut figured 



34 
35 
35 
36 
37 
39 



41 
42 
43 
46 
48 
48 
49 
51 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE 


PAGE 


PLATE 


JProntisi 


u c< . Heads of Aahmes I and 


LI 




Amenhotep I, royal tombs 


. 30 


LII 


I 


Jars of King Ka — Ap . 


. 3 


Lin 


II 


5> » 


. 3 


LIA r 


III 


„ ,, and Queei 


i 


LV 




Ha, &c. .... 


o 

o 




IV 


Inscriptions, Sma to Zet 


5 


LVT 


V 


,, Azab to Qa 


5 


LVII 


VI 


Pottery, to Zer . 


(i 


LVIII 


VII 


„ Den to Khasekhemui 


6 


LIX 


VIII 


„ from Aegean . 


. 6 


LX 


IX 


Stone vases 


. 7 


LXI 


X 


Alabaster vases, &c. 


. 7 


LXI I, 


XI 


Ivory and ebony labels 


. 7 




XII 


Marks on stone vases . 


7 


LXIV 


XIII 


Steles and gold bar 


7 




XIV 


Flints, to Den 


8 


LXV 


XV 


Flints, Azab to end . 


8 


LXVI 




Osiris Temexos. 




LXVII 


XVI, 


XVII Flint knives without handle 


3 10 


LXVIII 


XVIII, 


XIX Flint knives with handles . 


11 


LXIX 


XX 


Flint hoes ..... 


11 


LXX 


XXI 


Tailed scrapers .... 


11 




XXII 


Irregular scrapers 


11 




XXIII 


Round scrapers .... 


11 


LXXI 


XXIV 


Long scrapers and flakes 


11 


LXXII 


XXV 


Wrought flakes .... 


12 


LXXIII 


XXVI 


Animal flints, saws, crescents and 




LXXIV 




combs ..... 


12 


LXXV 


XXVII 


Stone vases .... 


12 


LXXVI 


XXVIII- 


-XXXV Early pottery . 1 


2-14 


L XXVII 


XXXVI- 


-XLI Pottery of M. tombs 


18 


LXXVIII 


XLII- 


-XLVII Stone vases of M. tombs 


18 


LXXIX 


XLVIII, 


XLIX Plans of M. tombs . 1 


5-18 


LXXX 


L 


Painted pottery, slates, tools, marks 


23 





PAG! 

Amulets &c. . . . .23 

Beads, whorls, &c. . . .21 
Fire places, tiles, grinders, &c. . 25 
Inscriptions of Vlth Dynasty, 27-41 
Inscriptions IVth— Xllth Dy- 
nasty .... 27. 41 
Columns of Antef V 28, 4 1 

Stele of Nekht . . 28,41 

Inscription of UsertesenI . 28, 42 
Inscription of Xlllth Dynasty 29, 42 
Inscription of XHIth Dynasty 29, 42 
Inscription of XVIIIth Dynasty 30 
LXIII Sculptures of Amen- 
hotep I . . . 30, 13 
Inscription of Tahutmes II & 

III . . . . 30,43 
Inscriptions of XlXth Dynasty 3 1 , 44 
Inscriptions of XVIIIth - 

XlXth Dynasty . . 31, 1 I 
Inscriptions of Ptahemua,&c. 31, 45 
Shrine of Haa-ab-ra . . 32 
Altars of XXVIth Dynasty 32, 48 
Bronzes, foundation deposits, &c. 32 

Cemetery G. 
Coffin of Tahutimcs. . 35,48 
Box, &c, of Mertiu-heru . 35, 48 
Coffin inscriptions . . 35, 48 
Canojnc boxes, &c. . . 35, 48 
Sarcophagi inscriptions . 39, 49 
Hypocephalus, G. 50, B . 38, 49 
Hypocephali G. 50, c, D . 38, 49 
Amulets . . . 38 

Ushabtis, &c. . . . 38, 39 
Sections and plans of tombs 

15-17, 34-40 



ABYDOS I. 



INTEODUCTION. 



1. The present volume completes the account 
of the objects found in the Royal Tumi is of 
the earliest dynasties, the discoveries in Avhich 
during the previous two years have appeared 
in the last two volumes. The account of the 
results of the present year's excavations covers 
nearly all that has been yet found in the 
Temenos of Osiris and the well-known ceme- 
tery ; but another large part of our work is kept 
back for publication when completed next year. 
It is always difficult to decide between partial 
publication in sections, issued rapidly for the 
immediate benefit of scholars, and systematic 
publication delayed until every detail has been 
iinally sifted and settled. But the worst of the 
bulletin system is that the student is afterwards 
dependent on indexes to find connected subjects ; 
while the worst of the great book long delayed 
is that often the material loses value while 
waiting, and the delays may run on so that 
much is forgotten in the interval. 

The Temenos of Osiris I had wished to ex- 
cavate since I first saw it in 1887. It was 
undoubtedly one of the oldest centres of 
worship, and had a long history to be un- 
ravelled. If it has proved so far rather 
different to what was expected, it the more 
corrects our ideas. But the real temple site 
has not yet been touched below the level of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty ; and a vast deal still remains 
to be done there. 



The cemetery G was only worked as proved 
desirable in intervals of other work, and to < r ive 
employment to workmen between other enter- 
prises, hying close behind our huts, and with 
scarcely any small objects of value casually 
found in it, such a place was an ideal resort 
whenever men could not be kept on elsewhere. 
I should hardly have worked it for its own sake 
alone; but as a stop-gap it proved very con- 
venient, and fairly desirable. 

The other large work, which is not described 
at all in this volume, occupied half of our men, 
or more, all the season. About a mile south of 
Abydos, at the foot of the desert cliffs, I had 
noticed some great tombs when first visiting 
the ground. The temple which Mr. Maclver 
excavated two years ago (see the volume on 
El Am mli just issued) proved to belong to a 
king Kha-kau-ra, presumably Userteseu III., 
but possibly of a king of the XHIth Dynasty. 
The temple lies on the edge of the desert, and a 
long causeway leads up to one of the great 
tombs which we have found. As probably 
most of next season's work will be occupied 
with these tombs, before they are finally 
cleared, it is best to leave aside the plans which 
have been prepared, and give a connected 
account of the whole site next year. 

2. Our excavators were the same gang of 
men and boys from Koptos who have worked 
for me during many years. Indeed that gang 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE C0LEGE 
• LIBRARY 



/ 



ABYDOS I. 



has served as a nucleus for all other recent 
excavators, as Dr. Reisner, at Girgch, has 
drawn almost entirely on that centre, and the 
German work at Ahusir has used our trained 
Quftis for headmen, to say nothing of the 
Research Account work at El Kab, which has 
depended on the same source. I have no doubt 
other places would furnish equally desirable 
workers, but when once a large party have been 
trained, they are naturally sought for elsewhere. 
It is needful, however, to carry on a continual 
weeding of old hands, as the Egyptian always 
becomes spoiled with prosperity ; and some of 
the boys, as they have grown up, have come 
to the front line in their intelligence and 
conduct. We also employed over a hundred 
boys, from villages near the work, to do the 
carrying. 

Our camp was entirely fresh, as those who 
were with us before had all passed on to other 
work. Mr. Arthur Weigall came out for the 
first time, and proved a most successful worker. 
I greatly regret, for the sake of our Avork, that 
I have to congratulate him on passing on at 
once to a better position. He entirely super- 
intended the men at the great southern tombs, 
which I only visited to give general direction to 
the region of work. He also looked after the 



close of the temenos work, and drew some of the 
inscriptions, the whole of which he comments 
on in this volume. Mr. Laurence Christie, who 
came for artistic copying, has done more than 
four plates in this volume ; but most of his time 
was given to copying selected sculptures in the 
Scty temple for the Research Account. Ex- 
cavations at the Sety temple, on the same basis, 
were carried on by Mr. A. St. G. Caulfeild, who 
also took many photographs, some of which 
appear in this frontispiece. My wife was closely 
occupied with drawing nearly all the season ; 
especially on the tedious figuring of nearly four 
hundred flints, and the exact facsimile copies 
of inscriptions. My own work lay in the 
Temenos of Osiris, directing the diggers, 
levelling and recording, and general manage- 
ment and account keeping ; for the season's 
work involves some 40,000 entries of small 
sums. I have also drawn thirty-seven of the 
plates here, and taken the photographs. The 
immediate production of a fully-illustrated 
bulletin of the results of a season, before the 
objects reach England, involves organizing all 
the copying on the spot ; but the advantages of 
quick publication make it well worth while to 
carry out this system, as we have now done for 
three years. 



CHAPTER I. 



OBJECTS FROM THE ROYAL TOMBS. 



3. The earliest royal tomb that can vet be 
placed in the series is that of king Ka, which 
was described in the last volume (Royal Tombs, 
ii, p. 7). Within the chamber were hundreds 
of fragments of cylindrical jars (type, pi. vi, 1), 
some of them with cross-lined pattern copied 
from cordage. Such jars are well known in 
the later prehistoric pottery, and belong to the 
sequence date 78 in that scale. On many of 
these jars are inscriptions, roughly written in 
ink with a brush ; and on comparing all of the 
fragments, I have succeeded in putting together 
those which are copied in plates i., ii., and iii. 
They prove to be all of two formulae, one for 
the king, and one for his queen. And as being 
the oldest hieroglyphic inscriptions known, 
probably half-way back in the dynasty before 
Mena, they deserve our closest attention ; they 
show the oldest shapes of the signs, and prove 
that at that age writing was so familiar that a 
rapid form of it was freely used to write on 
dozens of common pottery jar's. 

On plates i. and ii. it is seen that the whole 
formula was Suten Ap, the Horus Kit, followed 
by three strokes ; and on plate iii. the second 
formula was //>' hemt en Horus Ka. Thus, as 
clearly as possible, these jars are inscribed for 
the king Ap, whose Horus name is Ka, and for 
Ha, the wife of the Horus Ka. The name Ap 
occurs as a masculine name in the Old Kingdom, 
and also very commonly the form Apa : while 
Hay and Hayt are known as feminine names. 
No objection has been made to this reading, 
even by those who are most surprised by such 
grammatical writing at that age. The meaning 



of the three strokes below the Horus name is 
not clear, and probably we shall bave to wail 
for some better drawn inscription to explain 
them, as writing was so familiar to the scribe 
that mere indications were then enough to rive 
the idea. There is no parallel to this group 
following any of the other early Horus names ; 
and, as maa kheru and neb taui both belong to 
far later times, we may perhaps suppose these 
lines to represent some steps on which the 
funereal stele was erected, as on the alabaster of 
Azab, pi. v, or the pottery marks, probably all 
from Azab, in Royal Tombs, i, pi. xlvi, 111 — 
155. The signs themselves show more than is 
yet known about them. Observe especially the 
suten plant, which is sometimes of the later 
normal form, as in Nos. 4, 7, and 9 ; more 
generally it has the leaf or flower at the top 
like the qema or res sign of the south ; and 
generally the root is shown as a wavy line 
hanging from it, see especially Nos. 1, 2, 17, 19. 
This plant was then separate from the nen or 
neJcheb plant, but no distinction between the 
suten and qeuin plant was yet made. Probably 
the use of this plant for qema or south was 
then in the stage of naming the kingdom, par 
excellence, before any other region to the north 
had been formally included in it : much as we 
should at present mean the British Isles by 
speaking of " the kingdom," in contrast to the 
far larger parts of the present kingdom in other 
regions. 

The inversion of the form of the Horus- or 
fc-name is strange. That the strokes above 
the arms represent a panelling, like that placed 



ABYDOS I. 



below the name in all later examples, seems 
proved by their great variety, having any 
number of lines from two (fig. 5) to five (figs. 
4, 20, 23), or even thirteen strokes scratched 
on pottery (B. T. ii, xiii) ; such could hardly 
be a hieroglyph. From later instances this 
panelling certainly is copied from the front of a 
building, tomb, or palace : so here we must take 
it as such, and see the space below it, which 
contains the sign, as equivalent to the doorway 
of the building. The instances scratched on 
pottery (R. T. ii, pi. xiii) should probably all 
be turned, with the Tea arms upwards, and the 
panel strokes above them. It is evident that 
the position of the panelling strokes was changed 
between the time of Ka and that of Narmer. 

The reed a has here the separate flowex - s of 
the feathery head, as in all early examples ; but 
they vary from three to five in number. The 
mat- work p has the ends all left loose, as in the 
seals Nos. 16, 57-60, 72, 118, 160 (R, T. i, and 
ii.). The plant ha is like that on the Aha 
ebony tablet in having no base line (B. '/'. ii, 
x, 2) ; but the base line came in at that time, as 
on the tablet B. T. ii, pi. iii, 4, and perhaps the 
same on the tablet No. 3 in the same plate. 
The signs hem and n might belong to almost 
any later age. 

Thus on the whole there are but two points 
in which a change took place between the signs 
of king Ka and the general usage of two or 
three centuries later; the suten sign passed 
into two distinct forms, those for "kin"-" and 

-nth," a political change hardly due to hiero- 
glyphic development, and the hi name passed 
from the doorway of the panelling to the space 
over the panels. Neither of these changes are 
due to immaturity in the writing; and when we 
rlm> reach back a couple of centuries before 
Menu without finding any marked difference, 
and meet with a cursive writing, it is plai" that 
we are very far from touching the period of its 
formation. 

Beside the ink writing three more examples 



of incised writing of this same king are given, 
similar to those already published (R. T. ii, 
pi. xiii). On pi. iii, M 36 shows the tail of the 
hawk, part of the lea arms, and the top of the 
suten ; 37 shows the lea arms and a sign near 
by which is probably a star and crescent mark 
like No. 605, &c. (R. T. i, pi. Ii) ; 38 shows that 
in one case, at least, the panel strokes were put 
below and the arms hang down, as the suten 
sign unquestionably shows which way up this is. 

We may here briefly note the remaining 
figures in pi. iii. Nos. 39 — 43 are all numerical 
signs neatly painted in ink on alabaster jars, 39 
from the tomb of king Den, 40 — 43 from the 
tomb of king Mersekha, but perhaps thrown 
over from Den or elsewhere. 44, 46, and 47 
are ink writings on stone vases. 45 is ink 
writing on a jar from the tomb of Den ; it 
reads sesh, and should be compared with other 
writing on vases R. T. i, pi. xxxii, 34 — 37; 
pi. xiii, 57—64; R, T. ii, pi. xxv, 13 — 27. 
The figure of the god Min (48), ink-drawn on a 
piece of slate bowl from the tomb of Khase- 
khemui, is the oldest drawn figure of that god. 
The signs on 49 are from a slate bowl of 
Perabsen. 

4, When last year the names of the earliest 
kings were grouped together in Royal To ml is, 
vol. ii., I did not observe the presence of another 
name until the publication of the volume. On 
B. T. ii, pi. xiii, is a sealing No. 96, of which 
several fragments were found ; this shows the 
hawk on the mouth hieroglyph. Again, on 
li. T. i, pi. xliv, there are several examples 
(Nos. 2 to 8) of what seems to be the same 
group. Considering that this group is thus 
formally cut on a seal, and often drawn on 
pottery, I think we are justified in seeing in it 
the royal hawk and the hieroglyph r or ro, 
expressing the hi name of a king, Ro. All of 
the jDottery examples come from the tomb 13 1, 
which, with 13 2, was worked by Mr. Maclver in 
the first year ; and this accords with their giving 
the name of a king, incised like the other early 






OBJECTS FROM THE ROYAL TOMBS. 



kings' names, Ka (pi. iii, 38, &c.) and Nar 

(/?. T. i, pi. xliv, 1), and belonging to the tomb 
of the king. These tombs B 1 and 2 are shown 
on the plan (R. T. ii, pi. lviii) immediately 
above the name Bener-ab. 

The age of this king Ro cannot be far from 
that of king Ka. The position of the tomb does 
not indicate whether it was before or after that 
of Ka. But Ave must observe the presence of a 
great jar (R. T, i, pi. xxxix, 2), which is usual 
later, but does not occur in the tomb of Ka; 
the style of the sealing, which is more like those 
of Narmer or Mena than like the very simple 
one known of Ka (No. 89) ; and the clay, which 
is yellow marl (hei/b Arab.) like later sealings, 
and not black mud like the Ka sealing. All of 
these details point to the order of the kings 
being — 

KA 

RO 

ZESER 
NARMER 
SMA 

before the 1st Dynasty opens with Aha — Mena. 
Thus we can now tolerably restore half of even 
the ten kings who reigned at xYbydos before 
the united kingdom was established. The 
list on p. viii of F. T. ii, should be thus 
amended. 

5. Some small inscribed objects were not 
photographed till they reached England, so 
could not be included in the previous volume. 
They are here given on pi. iv. Figs. 1 and 2 
are pieces of crystal and syenite cups bearing 
the name of king Sma ; by careful wiping with 
colour the hieroglyphs nebui Sma are here 
brought out visible. Fig. 3 is a piece of ivory 
bracelet, which was found in the tomb B 2 by 
Mr. Maclver; I then supposed that it might 
bear the name of Aha, and in the next season 
the objects of Benerab clearly showed that this 
was one of her bracelets, with her name and 
that of Aha, which had strayed over from the 
neighbouring tomb. Fig. 4 is a fragment of a 



volcanic stone bowl from the tomb of Khase- 

khemui. Fig. 5 is a piece of an upright cup of 
pink Limestone, with part of a Btrange hiero- 
glyph upon it which we have not met with 
elsewhere ; it might possibly be the base of a 
lr<i name, but the crosses below are unexplained. 
Fig. 6 is a piece of alabaster vase, with a faint 
inscription of Ncithotcp. Fig. 7 is the plait of 
hair and piece of false fringe found in the tomb 
of king Zer, probably belonging to his queen, 
on whose arm the bracelets were found : the 
fringe of locks is exquisitely made, entirely on a 
band of hair, showing a long acquaintance with 
hair-work at that age. It is now in the Pitt- 
Rivers Museum at Oxford. Fig. 8 is an inscrip- 
tion on a fragment of pottery vase from the tomb 
of king Zer. Fig. 9 is a piece of black pottery 
with incised patterns, belonging to the large 
class of such pottery known in the pre-historic 
age, the Illrd and IVth Dynasties and the 
Xllth and XHIth Dynasties (see Naqada, xxx ; 
Dendereh, xxi, 1; Kahun, xxvii, 199 — 202; 
Diospolis Parva, xl, 43). The place of manu- 
facture of this pottery is yet unknown, but it is 
wide-spread in the Mediterranean, as we have 
noticed before. Fig. 10 is the edge of a bowl 
of quartzose metamorphosed slate ; on it is 
carved in relief the triple twist pattern. It 
is accidentally inverted here, and therefore 
reversed in lighting. Fig. 1 1 is a spirited 
drawing of a dwarf, outlined on a bowl of 
metamorphic rock. Fig. 12 is a piece of ivory, 
shown also in drawing on xi, 2 ; fig. 13 a 
piece of ivory, with a row of heads in squares, 
from the tomb of Zet; fig. 14 a piece of 
alabaster vase from the W tombs, probably of 
the reign of Zet. 

Plate v. The fragments of an alabaster in- 
scription of Azab were published separately 
before ; for it was not till they came to England 
that I observed that the pieces fitted together, 
as they were fou. 3 . scattered in three different 
tombs. The inscription of Qa was found acci- 
dentally after publishing the others from that 



/ 



ABYDOS I. 



tomb. The gold foil of Qa seems to have been 
part of a model mat of a hotep offering, like 
that found at Hierakonpolis (Hierakonpolis, i, 
pi. xx, 9). The great stele of king Qa was 
found on the east side of his tomb as described 
(B. T. i, p. 15) ; the lower part of it had been 
removed by the Mission Amelineau, and was 
kept at the Cairo Museum ; thence it has now 
been exchanged, and will rejoin the upper part 
in the Philadelphia Museum. 

6. The pottery from the Royal Tombs is 
given on pis. vi, vii, in addition to that already 
published in B. T, i, pis. xxxix — xliii. It is 
here classed according to the period ; and the 
following references are given to the volumes 
Royal Tombs, i (7?.), and the present Abydos (A.), 
with the number of the pottery drawing in each. 
The large jars begin under king Ro with two 
bands and a bottom ring of rope pattern (7?. 2) ; 
then pass on to plain bands, under Zer (A. 13) ; 
next the bands come closer together, under 
Mersekha (7?. G) ; further on they pass up to 
above the shoulder (7?. 7), or dwindle to a single 
band, under Qa (7/. 5) ; and lastly we see the 
jar far smaller with a single band, under 
Perabsen (J. 31). 

Some curious late variants of the wavy- 
handled jars come from the tomb of Mena, 
B. 19. They are very thick, and so differ from 
the earlier types, though the form A. 3 is like 
that found far earlier ; the arched pattern 
around it is, however, certainly late. The 
other forms, A. 5, 6, are more than half solid, 
and the arch pattern has sunk to two curves, 
or merely three finger pits. Later on under 
Zer, .1. 15, 16, these become even more for- 
malized ; but it is curious that two different 
forms, this one and the cylinder jar, A. 1, 11, 
12, were both derived from one prototype. It 
is explained, however, by the cylinder jar being 
a form influenced l.y approximating to the 
alabaster cylinder jars, wnici ore already long 
in use (Diospolis Parva, p. 15, pi. iii) ; and 
the forms here, A. 3, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16 ; 7/. Ill — 



114, must be looked on as the real close of the 
wavy-handled type. 

The survival of black-topped pottery, A. 9, 
10, under Zer is unexpected, as few forms last 
beyond 60, and scarcely any after 70, sequence 
date. These, however, are very different in 
appearance to the earlier black-topped, and are 
of forms unknown in the prehistoric ; only the 
accidental blacking beneath the ashes resembles 
the early ware. The oval dishes, A. 19, 20, are 
the last descendants of the oval forms so usual 
in the early prehistoric ; and no later examples 
than these have been found. 

On reaching Perabsen we find the links to 
the regular forms of the Old Kingdom. The 
form A. 28, probably derived from that of 
Mena's age, B. 110, is the parent of the type 
of the Vlth Dynasty (Dendereh, xvi. 5, 7, 22). 
The hand-made pot with diagonal linger marks, 
A. 27, is the parent of the usual pot of the 
Illrd— IVth Dynasty (Medum, xxxi, 15); 
which in another variety {Medum, xxxi, 19) 
lasted on to the Vlth Dynasty (Dendereh, 
xvi, 8). 

The large limestone bowl, A. 33, found in the 
tomb of Mena, is like that of which a piece bears 
the name of Zet (B. T. ii, pi. vii, 2). The 
huge pilgrim-bottle, A. 34, is probably of the 
XXIInd Dynasty. 

7. The Aegean pottery here figm-ed, pi. viii. 
1 — 14, was found together in a single deposit in 
the tomb of Zer, as described in detail in Royal 
Tombs, ii, pp. 9, 46 ; the account already given 
should be referred to, and we need only here 
say that the date and the foreign origin of this 
group are beyond epiestion. Some regular 
Egyptian forms, such as 9, 10, 13, 14, and the 
alabaster 11, were deposited with the foreign 
(onus, and show by the contrast the wide 
difference between them. The painted pieces 
below are from the tombs of Den (T) and 
Mersekha (U); the zigzag Line between parallels 
is a well-known later design, but not hitherto 
met with in this aye. 



OBJECTS FROM T1IK ROYAL TOMBS. 



8. ( ha plate ix are some outlines of stone 
vases, supplementary to those given in lim/nl 
Tombs, ii, pis. xlvi — liii. Fig. 1 is a portion of 
a syenite enj> of king Sma, the inscri])tiun of 
which is here shown in photograph on pi. iv. 2. 
The very curious rush tray carved in alabaster, 
fig. 4, is here restored from fragments which 
were found scattered far apart. It is most like 
some of the remarkable slate carvings which 
have yet to be published, when the portions 
now hidden in Paris are available for science. 
The dolomite marble vases, figs. 5, 6, 7, LO, 
are those with gold caps, already published in 
photographs (li. T. ii, pi. ix, 2— 10). Figs. 8, 
9, were found with the copper bowls (R. T. ii, 
pi. ix, 13, 15). The diorite bowl, fig. 13, is 
photographed in 11. T. ii, pi. ix, 11 ; for the 
position see R. T. ii, p. 13, chamber 44. The 
bowls, figs. 14, 15, are mentioned in position 
in R. T. ii, p. 12, chamber 1G. 

On plate x. is shown a small group found 
in the chamber Z 1 1 , south of the tomb of king 
Zet. The zig-zag pattern, fig. 16, is incised 
on a bird's leg-bone, which probably served to 
hold copper needles; the copper borer, 19, is 
quadrangular ; the two flint scrapers should be 
compared with those from Z on pi. xiv. Fig. 
20 is a portion of a carved wooden tray, much 
weathered, but apparently of a close-grained 
conifer, probably cedar ; the base is shown in 
the sketch, and part of the curved side. Fig. 21 
is from a broken cup of thin horn, found in the 
tomb of Mena. The rude vases of alabaster are 
selected to show the variety of forms among the 
great number found in the tomb of Ehase- 
khemui ; the depth of the hollow is shown by 
a dotted line ; these were drawn by Mr. 
Weigall. 

9. As it was impossible to draw all the 
engraved labels for the last volume, several 
are given here which were issued only in 
photographs last year. It will be clearest for 
reference to state the number on plate xi., 
the reference to the photograph, and the 



comparison with duplicate labels already 

published. 



PI. xi. 


Photographed. 


Compare. 


2 


.1/ 


. iv. 


L2 




, 


• • ■ 


3 


. 


. 


. 


, 


/;. 


T. i, xiii, 3 


•1 


li. 


T. 


ii, vii a 


3 




xiv, 12 


5 




n 


ii 


6 




ii 22 


G 




>) 


ii 


5 


. 


. 


7 




>» 


., 


4 


//. 


T. i, xv, 1C 


8 




11 


vii, 


11 




» ii 18 


9 




11 


viii, 


5 




xvii, 26 


10 




11 


m 


1 


R. 


T. ii, xii, Ii 


11 




11 


ii 


2 


(R. 

(Ii. 


T. i, xvii, 29 
T. ii, xii, 6 



The duplicate fragments are of the greatest 
value in any attempt to read these inscriptions, 
as the variants in arrangement show in what 
order the signs are to be taken, and what are 
connected groups. In fig. 1 1 here, the com- 
parison of the reading with those named above, 
shows clearly that the sen sign of the royal 
name is to be taken in the sense of " breath," 
as in two cases it has the nose following it. 

On plate xii. are various examples of incised 
marks on stone vases, which should be put on 
record. Those without references were found 
on fragments heaped together from various 
tombs in the French work. Fig. 1 is photo- 
graphed in R. T. ii, pi. ii, 7. Fig. 15 is part 
of a nebui inscription. Fig. 18 is probably 
the up ast as in R. T. ii, pi. va, 6, 22—24. 
Fio-s 20, 21, 22 seem to be all variants of one, 
and probably the same as R. T. i, vii, 11 ; 
from these examples the reading must be mer- 
se-lca. 

10. On plate xiii. are some drawings of 
steles, which have not been published in 
photograph. Some of them are unusual, and 
need careful comparison with parallel names. 
On 151 there seems to be the name Da-Khnum 
" gift of Khnum," but with a very strange 
form of vase determinative, unlike any vases 



ABYDOS I. 



known of this age. On 148 it seems as if the 
double hill du was used as a variant for the 
triangle gift da, and it should read Hotep-du- 
Neit, " Neit give peace." The painted inscrip- 
tion in red, 156, is uncommon. On 159 seems 
to be a hyaena. 168 is a fragment of a large 
royal stele, found in what is probably the 
tomb of Narmer ; it is carved with relief in 
three different levels, indicated by different 
shading ; the object appears to be part of a 
decorated facade (like that in Deshasheh, xxvi), 
and if so, the royal name was probably in the 
doorway below it, as on the inscription of king 
Ka, Unhappily no more was found ; but, of 
coivrse, there may be other fragments in Paris 
quite unknown. The gold bar of Aha, 171, is 
here outlined in side view, and the markings on 
the ends also shown ; the photograph of the 
ends has been already published in R. T. ii, 
pi. iiiA 7, and described on p. 21. 

11. On plates xiv., xv., the worked flints 
found in the royal tombs are arranged in their 
historical order. In the upper half of the'series 
the flakes and scrapers are placed, and below 
these are the knives and fragments. The names 
of the kings are placed at the top of each 
column, and the letters of the tombs and some 
details are written on the photographs. In no 
other country or age has such an admirable 
series been found for the study of variations in 
the types and the rate of variation. And this 
only adds one more to the bitter regrets that 
this collection consists of only the scraps left 
behind after the shameless plundering of these 
tombs by speculators, with the full assent of 
the Egyptian authorities. 

At the top the small pointed flakes begin 



with Mena, and disappear under Merneit ; the 
flakes under Den are rougher, and such con- 
tinue to Perabsen. On the other hand, the 
square-ended flakes begin under Den, but 
develop strongly and distinctively during the 
Ilnd Dynasty. The round-ended flakes are 
finely worked with wide flat sides ; beginning 
under Zer, they are poorer under Den, and 
merge into the square-ended flakes by the end 
of the 1st Dynasty. 

The flat scrapers are not of well-marked 
types at first ; a tailed scraper is seen under 
Merneit, and a rounded triangular one under 
Azab. The triangle is sharper under Mersekha, 
and by the time of Khasekhemui the tri- 
angular scraper, long or equilateral, is the 
commonest form of flint. 

The knives begin with the deep back curve, 
as in that found in the Mena-tomb at Naqada 
(De Morgan, Bech. ii, fig. 769). The handle 
by the first large knife does not belong to that 
specimen, but is only placed to carry on the 
figure. The curve becomes less gradually, 
until it is almost straight backed under 
Khasekhemui. The surface working, which 
is far below that of the prehistoric flints even 
at first, becomes rougher on the later knives, 
and the body is left much thicker and coarser. 
One instance of a recurved tip occurs under Zet. 
The small knives, with two nicks for tying 
them on to the girdle, are only found under 
Zer, see foot of plate. The sharp toe to the 
handle is most marked in the first half of the 
dynasty, and fades away after that until it is 
almost lost under Khasekhemui. The most 
typical series of these varieties for comparison 
is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 



CIIAITKU II. 



THE TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. 



12, As the excavations in the great 
Temenos of Osiris still need one or two years 
more of work to complete them, it is not 
desirable to prepare a tentative plan; but 
anyone wishing to follow closely what is 
described can use the plan made by Mr. 
Garstang, and published in El Arabah. With- 
out a plan it is useless to trouble a reader with 
topographical descriptions, and hence the 
account here is restricted to explaining the 
relations of the various things found and 
figured in these plates. 

So far as our excavations have yet gone, 
the history of the site may be briefly summed 
up thus. A temple of Osiris stood here upon 
the sandy edge of the desert, certainly in the 
Vlth Dynasty, and presumably before the 
1st Dynasty. Outside of the temple enclosure 
a town sprang up behind it on the desert 
before the 1st Dynasty, and mingled with that 
town are a few large tombs and some smaller 
burials of the 1st Dynasty. These seem to 
have been placed amid the deserted houses 
when that part of the town was unoccupied. 
This town spread for some hundreds of feet 
around the temple, and lasted on to the 
IVth — Vlth Djmasties. Some time after the 
Old Kingdom a great enclosure wall was built, 
far outside of the temple ground, resting upon 
the town rubbish. A corner of this was boxed 
off with cross walls, and filled up with inter- 
ments of the Xlth — XVIIth Dynasties, known 
later as the Kom es Sultan, which was com- 
pletely emptied out by Mariette's workmen. 
In the Xlth Dynasty Antef V. rebuilt the 



temple with octagonal columns of limestone. 
In the Xllth Dynasty many monuments wen- 
added by Usertcsen I. In the Xlllth Dynasty 
Sebekhotep III. built a black granite gateway. 

In the XVHItli Dynasty Tahutmes III. 
lniilt a massive inner enclosing wall to the 
temple, over twenty feet thick, with a great 
red granite pylon on the back or desert Bide, 
opening into the larger walled area. Much of 
the larger wall had been destroyed, and a town 
spread over the space, as before in the Old 
Kingdom ; but later, probably in the troubles of 
the XXth Dynasty, the old line of outer wall was 
built again, over the later town. In the XXVIth 
Dynasty the temple was rebuilt, and additions 
made in the XXXth Dynasty. Where the 
original shrine of Osiris stood is not yet known ; 
but presumably it was the nucleus of the 
original temple, and therefore beneath the later 
temples. We have not yet cleared the temple 
site below the foundations of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, and work there will be very difficult 
owing to the rise of the Nile level placing the 
lower parts under Avater. 

13. The excavation of the temenos area was 
a difficult matter to arrange. On every side it 
was bounded so that no clear space could be 
begun upon ; and I was obliged to start by 
throwing back along a line of existing ruins. 
In the higher part of the ground, nearer to the 
desert, the clean sand surface of the old deserl 
was found beneath all the towns piled one over 
the other. But this clean sand was inaccessible 
beneath the water in every part of the temple 
ground bounded by the great wall of Tahutmes 



10 



ABYDOS I. 



III. That most important region we have 
only yet searched as far back as the XVIIIth 
Dynasty ; but having now finished a large space 
outside of it, we can proceed next year to 
unload the temple ground on to the space 
already searched, and thus work down over it, 
leaving only the lowest levels to be cleared at 
the dry end of the season. In the whole space 
outside of the temple ground not a trace of any 
building of the early time was found except 
mud brick houses. We have, then, to deal with 
what was a series of towns, piled up in strata 
which are usually (i inches to 1 foot thick. 

To denote the positions of small objects found, 
I marked each with a trench number and a 
level. The trench numbers I have not pub- 
lished here, as it appears that there was a 
generally level spread of the town in all parts 
that we dug, for peculiar tyj)es of flints or 
pottery are found at closely the same level in 
different trenches. The levels were at first 
denoted in inches absolutely above a fixed 
datum point ; but as work went on it proved 
more convenient and satisfactory to denote 
them in inches over the basal slope of clean 
sand. This sand gently sloped down from the 
desert to the cultivation, and hence absolute 
levels are not comparable, but heights over 
sand show the true depth of ruin. Every level 
stated on the drawings of flints, pottery, and 
other objects here is in inches over sand, or 
absolute depth of ruin at the point. Roughly 
speaking, the town began about the beginning 
of Dynasty 0, and the stratified material that 
was left untouched by the sebakhin rarely 
extended beyond the Ilnd Dynasty. The 
discussion of the relations of the pre-historic 
sequence dates, the kings' reigns, and the town 
levels will best be taken after describing the 
various material that we have found. In many 
places I dug through the basal sand for a foot 
or two, but always found it clean and undis- 
turbed, and in no case did I observe any graves 
or hollows dug in it and filled up, though I 



often looked for them carefully. The walls of 
the houses were sometimes visible for a couple 
of feet or so in height when a clean section was 
cut ; but the bricks were quite indistinguishable, 
and the wall could only be detected as the 
interruption of lines of charcoal and potsherds 
by a vertical face of uniform earth. It was, 
therefore, not practicable to trace out the 
separate houses, or to make any plan of the 
buildings ; and in no case did we find any length 
of uniform wall more than the side of a room 
or two, or any thicker mass than the usual 
chamber walls. There does not seem to have 
been any large enclosure or uniform mass of 
building, but only small houses. The whole 
compacted mass of wall-stumps, mud and sherds 
is so unified by pressure and wet — being 
saturated at high Nile — that only clean cut 
sections would show anything ; and there was 
no discriminating cohesion in one part more 
than another. 

14. Throughout the early town, flints more 
or less wrought were abundant. Thousands of 
flakes were found (of which a portion were 
levelled, and are figured on pis. xxiv, xxv) : 
and some hundreds of worked-up flints, knives, 
scrapers, saws, &c, which were all levelled when 
found in undisturbed earth. The sebakhin had, 
however, dug over the whole site, and parts of 
it down even to the sand ; and therefore many 
flints Avere found in their siftings which cannot 
now be levelled. Though some of these were 
fine examples, they are not figured here, as no 
exact historic value can be given to them. The 
drawings here were all made by outlining the 
flints on the paper, copying the edge flakes, and 
then drawing in the general flaking by freehand, 
observing the form of each flake carefully. 
Every flint has its level in inches over the basal 
sand, or the depth of ruin when it was dropped, 
marked below it. 

Pis. xvi, xvii. Flint Knives without 
HANDLES. — On comparing these it did not seem 
that there was any restriction of types to special 



THE TKMKNOS OF OSIRIS. 



11 



Levels ; lience these are arranged rather l>v the 
amount of curvature in the back, as this enables 
a comparison with any other specimen to be 

most readily made. The whole of the flaking 
is rough compared with the prehistoric work, 

and it resembles that of the knives of the 1st 
Dynasty tombs and the Hierakonpolis deposit. 
Many of the specimens are greatly changed in 
outline by wear ; for instance, the snubbing of 
the edge of 27 shows plainly in the drawing. 
This snubbing is always on the side next the 
person when the flint is held in the right hand : 
and was doubtless the result of scraping away 
from the person. Sometimes a flint will lie 
snubbed half the length on one face and half on 
the other face, having been held sometimes by 
one end, sometimes by the other. This wear 
may be noticed in the drawings of 5, 7, 14, 19, 
27, 35, and 3G, outer end. The wide finely 
re-curved knives 30, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41 and 42 
belong to levels 22 to 65 (as the M tombs were 
cut into the ground, see below) ; and this corre- 
sponds to the first half of the 1st Dynasty, 
agreeing to the fine one of this type, in the 
Naqada tomb of Plena's queen. No butt ends 
of this type of knife were found in the royal 
tombs, excepting perhaps one of Zet and one of 
Mersekha ; but owing to only the broken pieces 
being known from those tombs, it is difficult to 
make comparisons. The tip 40 is much like 
one of Zer ; and the recurved tip 39 is like one 
of Zet. 

Pis. xviii, xix. Flint Knives with Handles. 
— These seem to cover the same range of levels 
as those without handles. They are arranged 
here in order from the most concave backs to 
the most convex. The work is generally rougher 
than is seen on those from the royal tombs ; a 
natural difference between working articles and 
royal specimens. None of the very pointed 
toes are found on the handles, and the blades 
are far thicker than the royal knives. We 
may well compare fig. 53 with the knives of 
Khasekhemui, the long narrow blade GO with 



tin' long blade 4 the same king, and fig. 5 1 is 
mosi like the knives of Azab and Mersekha. 
The l.isi example, fig. 84, is of the Xlth — Xllth 

Dynasty, as it is closely like those in Dendereh, 
xxii, Kahun, \\i, and lllahun, vii, \iii. 

PI. xx. 'I'm: Flint Hoes. — These form a 
well-marked group, mine being found below 38, 
and most being within 2<> inches, from 75 to 95. 
The form underwent very slight changes down 
to the Xllth Dynasty (Illahun, vii.). Most of 
these hoes show the high polish due to wear in 
use; and the mode of setting is seen in hiero- 
glyphs of the Vth Dynasty, where three hoes in 
a line are bound on to the end of a long handle, 
at right angles to it. 

Pis. xxi — xxiii. The Scrapers. — These are 
roughly classed as tailed, irregular, and round; 
in each class they are arranged in the order of 
their levels. 

The tailed scrapers are mostly poor and slighl 
up to about 10 level; but from 30 to 51 there 
is a class of thick, carefully- flaked, pieces, with 
the edge often notched. After 51 only two 
slight ones are known. The history of this 
form is therefore very definite. 

The irregular scrapers are mainly before 40 ; 
22 being in the first 40 inches, and only 8 in 
the next such space. 

The round scrapers are similarly distributed, 
three-quarters in the lowest part of the town. 
As in the royal tombs it is only when the finer- 
worked flints were given up that the rougher 
scrapers were buried, it is useless to compare 
the few scrapers found there with those from 
the town. At the base of the plate are two 
flint borers ; a broken disc of flint, probably in 
course of working for a bracelet ; and a flint 
core. 

PL xxiv. Long Scrapers. — These have all 
been used for scraping a wide surface ; some 
may probably be misused knives (189, 193), 
but others are evidently maJe for scraping, as 
194, 195, 198. 

Flakes are classified into plain flakes (199— 



12 



ABYDOS I. 



236), tipped flakes (237— 2G6), worked flakes 
(267— 28 1). rounded flakes (282—285), and 
square flakes (286 — 291). The simpler forms 
are pretty equally distributed ; the rounded 
ends are wide before 60, and narrow after, 
much as in the tombs they are wide to Merneit, 
and narrow from Den onward. The regular 
square form does not here begin till 40, and we 
know that it continued in use till the end of the 
Illrd Dynasty (Medum, xxix, 26). 

PL xxvi. Three pieces of animal figures 
chipped in flint were found ; and such are 
already known from elsewhere (see Man, 1902, 
art. 14). The figure 294 is certainly a crocodile, 
and the others may be intended for the same 
beast. 

The smaller saw flints are probably all from 
sickles ; they belong to the lower levels in the 
town. 

The crescent flints are nearly all of the higher 
levels, over 50 inches. The use of them is 
suggested by finding a great quantity in a 
stratum of white sand and stone dust ; this 
indicates that they were used like the vase 
grinders (pi. liii. 23 — 34), but probably for the 
earlier rough stages of drilling out alabaster vases. 
The comb flints 315 — 327 are hitherto un- 
known ; but it seems likely that they are a 
development of the round scraper, perhaps for 
scraping the scales from fish. 

15. The stone vases, pi. xxvii, which were 
found in the temenos strata are mostly frag- 
mentary. They show, hoAvevcr, the periods of 
several well-known types, which may all be 
placed here Avithin the 1st Dynasty or a little 
before it. Referring to the stone vases which 
are dated by the Royal Tombs (It. T. ii, pis. 
xlvi — liii), we may compare here : — 



Stone. 






Alab. 

Bas.'i It 



30 

45 



King. 



Number. 



jMena 
(Zer 
Zer 



297 

298 

54 



Stone. 


Level. 


King. 


Number. 


Alab. 


27 


Zer 


491 


Alab. 


57 


Zer 


299 


Alab. 


50 


Zet 


156 


Alab. 


30 


Merneit 


330, 331 


Alab. 


85 


Merneit 


334 


Alab. 


64 


Azab 


306 



It must always be remembered that stone 
vases are liable to be retained in use for two 
or three generations after being made, as Ave 
see by the secondary inscriptions on those from 
the royal tombs. But on the Avhole these 
agree, the toAvn being mainly of the 1st Dynasty, 
and the exact levels Ave shall note again in 
section 20. 

It should be observed that several forms here 
in the toAvn, with pierced handles (leA^els 45, 
23, 37, 58, 40, 28), are unknown in the royal 
tombs, and only once occur (M 16, 6, pi. xlv) 
in the large quantity of stone vases in the M 
tombs ; they are like some late prehistoric forms, 
and seem to have been avoided for tomb furniture. 

16. Pis. xxviii — xxxv. The Early Pot- 
tery. — The Avhole of the pottery found in the 
strata of the early toAvn is here classed according 
to its forms, from the most open to the most 
closed. It might seem superfluous to give 
figures of so many slightly differing varieties ; 
but it is just the minute variations which best 
enable us to study and discriminate the changes 
and different periods. Therefore Avherever a 
difference could be distinctly seen, apart from 
the mere irregularities of form in each pot, it 
is here given for comparison. The forms are 
all numbered through, 1 to 211, so that only 
the numbers are quoted in the folloAving ac- 
count. Other publications of pottery are quoted 
as X. (Naqada), IK (Diospolis), B. T. i. (Royal 
Tombs i.), and M (plates xxxvi. — xlvii. here, of 
M tombs). 

The forms 1 — 5, 8, 9, are roughly hand- 
made, see iV. R 1 and 21. These and the 



THE TBMBNOS OF OSIBIS, 



is 



small saucers, 10— 14, are so easily invented at 
any time that they are not important. 

The everted bowls L5— 27 are both of rough 

brown pottery (see X. I J 24, 26, 28) or of 
polished red ware of poor and late quality 
(see .V. P 15, 17, 18). 

The brim bowls, 28—31. are of late origin, 
but of various ware; some red polished ( .V. 
P 14), some rough brown, but more usually 
of hard late ware (A. L 7, 8, 9, 10). 

The inturned bowls are the commonest of 
all, and descend from early ages; they are 
divided into four columns here, the straight 
sided, the curved sided, the rounded sided, and 
the wide based. 

It should be noted that the different classes 
of bowls were not in use similarly at all levels. 
The rough small saucers are all of or 3 level ; 
the everted bowls at to 25, and one later ; 
the wide bases usually 25 to 50 ; the brim bowls 
19 to 85; the rounded bowls 18 to 115. This 
shows that fluctuations in fashion went on from 
one generation to another, within the wider 
range of the mere existences of such forms which 
cover much longer periods. 

The rough-bottomed bowls, 57 — 62, were 
made by dropping a lump of mud into a hole in 
the ground, and then shaping it up by hand. 
They are all very thick, and of soft, poorly- 
baked mud ; sitms marked with the finder 
often occur on the inside of the bowls, and such 
are copied here. The earlier forms are flatter, 
the later ones more upright. 

The great pans, 66 — 69, were probably used 
for storage, as also the ovate jars 70 — 77. 
These forms are not known in the graves, 
except very rarely a jar. But the great pans 
were used to invert over a contracted body, so 
as to constitute a grave ; and they are commonly 
known to explorers by their modern name of 
magv/r. The pans are found in all levels, but 
the jars only range from 18 to 62. 

The great jars with narrow mouths (78 — S3) 
were probably sunk in the ground and used to 



store grain. \ recess around the mouth (see 
section in 81 | was made I" retain a lid. The 
levels stated here are taken a little below the 
top, at the probable ground level. The same 
form of mouth to a spheroidal jar was found 
along with a cylinder of Ka-Ra, probably 
Khaires who reigned either just before or after 
Khasekhemui in the [Ind Dynasty {El Kab, ii, 2). 
This would be probably rather later than the 
examples here, which are at 68 to 88 levels. 

The largest jar (Fig. S3) is much later, being 
found at 55 inches under the pavement of 
Aanenhotep I ; the height over sand is yet 
unknot n. 

The cylinder jars, 84 - 86, are of the usual 
late type, such as is found in the latest pre- 
historic graves, probably contemporary with 
such jars in the Mena and Zer tombs. The 
series of further degradation of this form is 
given in /,'. T. i, 119—129. 

The minute forms, 88 — 91, seem to be models 
of the large jars 102, &c. They are all early. 

The rough brown jars, 92 — 97, are of the 
form of the late ash jars of the prehistoric 
graves ( A'. L 30). In two or three houses long 
lines of these were found stacked against a wall ; 
in one case 21 jars, along a chamber 145 by 86 
inches, standing mouth down on the sand 
(fig. 92) ; elsewhere more than a dozen, mouth 
up (fig. 97) ; elsewhere a long line, mouth 
down (tig. 95); and in nearly all of these cases 
the bottoms were broken off. 

The smooth, hard, light brown jars, ( J8 — 101, 
are not so common in the town as they are in 
graves. 

The class of great jars, 102 — 105, is quite 
distinct from all others. The earliest is that 
from the tomb of King Ro (Ii. '/'. i, 2), which 
has the raised bands marked to imitate rope ; 
this is a copy of a jar slung in cords, like the 
example carved in stone found by Amelineau 
(De Morgan, Eech. ii, tig. 823). For a small 
pottery model of the same see 11. T. ii, pi. 
xxxviii, 1. Such jars were found by me with 



14 



ABYDOS I. 



the remains of actual cordage upon them in the 
offerings to Merneit : and the impression of the 
ring of cord round the neck is usually found on 
the lower edge of the great sealing*. The 
successive stages of degradation of these jars 
have been already noted in section 6. The 
elaborate pattern on 105 must be due to an 
archaistic imitation, or possibly the piece was 
dug out from the lowest level in early times ; 
certainly it is not in place in the series at 63 
level. The plain jars without bands (104) arc 
of the same age as those with bands, see B. T. i, 
1 — 12; but they are generally of a fuller form 
than the banded jars. 

The hand-made pottery, with diagonal finger 
marks, 106 — 116, is well known in the Old 
Kingdom (Medwn, xxxi, 15 ; El Eab, xii, 23) ; 
but it does not occur in prehistoric graves. It 
appears from the levels to belong to the Ilnd 
Dynasty and onward ; and may be a degrada- 
tion of the well-made jars of the 1st Dynasty, 
such as in R. T. i, 16 — 31, or the forms 122, 
129 — 131, 136 here, which are earlier than the 
majority of these rough jars. 

The jars with a deep collar, 118 — 121, are 
pi'obably the latest stage of the ash-jar of the 
prehistoric graves (N. L 33, 34 ; D. L 34c). 

The whole class of rotund jars, 123 — 140, 
are usually of hard fawn-coloured pottery, 
which is common in late prehistoric times. 
They run on into the Illrd Dynasty, compare 
129 and Medum, xxx, 11; and the Vth Dynasty, 
see 135 and Deshasheh, xxxiii, 20. 

The little round-bottomed jars, 141 — 150, arc 
rare in tombs, but common in the town : they 
do not occur in the lowest levels, before the 
1st Dynasty, but are known in the prehistoric 
(/V. R 63) from 50 S.D. to the end. The earlier 
ones are well shaped with a good brim, and 
they become ruder in later instances. 

The small globular pots, 151 — 174, are 
common in the earlier levels, but are all more 
rounded at the bottom than the late prehistoric 
forms, N. R 64—69. 



The model vases 182 — 187 are of hard fawn 
ware like their larger prototypes. 

The ring stand 192 is one of the rudest forms. 
In 193 there is a combined cup and stand in 
one piece. 194 is a dish with lip. In 195 — 
197 we see combined bowls and stands made in 
one. Such are found in late prehistoric time, 
72 — 76 S.D., but seem to be quite unknown in 
the Illrd Dynasty and onwards. The stand 
pierced with triangular holes (198) is almost 
exactly like one in Dendereh, xvi, 38. The 
large globular jar on a small stand (211) is an 
extreme instance of the combined form. The 
decoration of red lines on the fawn pottery in 
205 — 211 belongs to the late prehistoric age. 
The triangular tube 203 is unknown elsewhere. 
Several solid cylinders of pottery (204) were 
found, with wiped lines around the ends, and 
diagonal finger marks ; they were probably 
used to support a wooden floor above the 
earth, like the jars at Kop>tos. 

17. Outside of the smaller enclosure, close 
around the Osiris temple, the town had sprung 
up before the 1st Dynasty ; and when four or 
five feet of rubbish and ruins had accumulated, 
at about the earlier half of the 1st Dynasty, 
several large tombs (some as much as thirteen 
feet by six) were sunk within the town, just out- 
side the temple gateway. Probably that part 
of the town site was unoccupied then, and after 
standing a couple of generations the houses 
had crumbled down, and the place seemed bare 
enough for a cemetery, although it was after- 
wards again covered by the town. These 
tombs were then subjected to such pressure 
and wet in the soil that their contents and 
walls are hardly to be distinguished from the 
town rubbish outside of them. It is only when 
a group of pottery or stone vases is found (bat 
we can be certain of the presence of a tomb, 
and it needs careful examination to settle the 
height of the walls. As will be seen in dis- 
cussing the dates in section 20 the walls are 
traceable up to, or within a few inches, of the 



Till: TEMBNOS OP OSIRIS 



!.. 



level which corresponds to the age of the t b ; 

and hence the tombs were cut down through 
about four or five feet of town rubbishj 
generally to the clean sand (see top of pi. 

lxxx), and lined with a wall which rose to the 
ground surface of that age. The roofing was 
doubtless of branches, twigs, and earth— like 
the prehistoric tombs — which gave way, and 
let the rubbish from the surface fall over, and 
till up the hollow. Most of these tombs seem 
never to have been disturbed ; the bodies were 
unbroken, the jars complete, and the fine stone 
vases in place: but as no gold work was found, 
and the only valuables were some beads, and 
in one case copper tools, it may be that covetablc 
objects bad, perhaps, been taken away. One 
of these tombs was found by accident two years 
ago, and its contents are published in B. T. ii, 
pi. xxxiii, numbered M 1. This year eleven 
more tombs or interments of that age were 
found, and the plans are shown in pis. xlviii, 
xlix, the pottery in pis. xxxvi — xli, the stone 
vases in pis. xlii — xlvii ; the copper tools in 
pi. 1, the beads in pi. lii, and the flint knives 
in pi. xvii. 

18. In the plaus pis. xlviii, xlix, every 
jar is shown in outline to scale. The pottery 
is in plain outline, the stone vases are cross- 
shaded one way, the blocks of stone single- 
shaded one way, and the brick walls single- 
shaded the other way. The numbers on the 
vases are those which were marked on them 
during the clearing of the tomb, and agree to 
the numbers on pis. xxxvi — xlvii. The 
necessities of the excavation made it impossible 
to keep a regular order of the numbers, either 
in position or nature of the objects. Some- 
times only a part of a tomb could be done at 
first ; sometimes it was needful to remove all 
the valuable stone vases overnight, for fear of 
robbery, and do the pottery next clay ; some- 
times a space had to be cleared to stand or 
kneel in, so as to reach the delicate parts of 
the clearance carefully. Almost every vase was 



sketched into ;. | Ian as it appeared, with often 
some measurements i*< secure the position, and 
then a number was marked <>n it to identify it 
again. AfhT making the drawings of the forms, 

the plans were fair-drawn fr the dimensions 

<m the plates "I forms, lining them all in to the 
dimensions measured as they stood in the tomb. 

The bodies were far too much rotted, with the 

wet and pressure, t,, be preserved; the skulls 
were kept, in some cases, on a Lump <>l earth, but 
all too much crushed t" he of any value for 
measurement: the positions were, however, 
noted carefully in all but one case, where it 
was broken up. 

The direction of the tombs was parallel to 
the temenos wall in most cases, ami they are 
drawn here with the reputed north upwards, 
really N.N.W. 

The tombs are arranged here in the order of 
their character, placing next to one another 
those most comparable. This is not in the 
order of numbers nor the order of the age. 
They should he studied with the sections, given 
at the top of pi. lxxx, which show their rela- 
tion to the native sand, and the relative breadth 
and height. 

M 24, M 25, M 2(1 are three burials in clay 
coffins ; they stood to each other in the 
respective positions here shown. The coffins 
2d and 26 were of black clay or mud, 25 of 
white clay. For the figures of the vases see 
pis. xli, xlvii. From the stone vases it has been 
observed already that they are most like those 
of the age of Den, Mersekha, and Mcrneit, so 
far as we can tell by one or two examples. By 
being close together they probably belong to 
the same age, apparently that of Den ; the: town 
level of which time was about 70. Thus the 
levels of the coffins at 40 and 50 inches 
(pi. lxxx) would mean that the bole for burial 
was dug 20 to 30 inches deep. The position 
of these and all the other burials was contracted 
in the usual prehistoric manner ; and in almost 
all cases the bead was south and face west, the 



16 



ABYDOS I. 



attitude of the prehistoric bodies. This is con- 
trary to the attitude of head north, face either 
way, in which were found most of the servants 
of king Qa ; and face cast, as the IITrd Dynasty 
people of Med urn. 

M 17 is the only instance of a bricked grave 
containing a clay coffin. The coffin was at 50 
inches over the sand (pi. lxxx) ; and as by the 
stone vases the burial can hardly be later than 
Merneit, when the surface level was 60, the 
black clay coffin can scarcely have been covered 
by the grave, but was hidden by heaping over 
the top. The body in the coffin was that of a 
woman ; that in the grave was a child, and at 
a rather lower level. By its hands was a small 
square packet of beads. The mass below vase 10 
was a lump of soft white earth, like rough 
plaster, which was not found in any other 
grave. The vases are figured on pis. xxxix, 
xliv. 

M 14 is the only instance of a burial with 
head to north. The length of the femur 
17'8 ins. (452 mm.) is usual for a man, but 
extreme for a woman. For the vases see 
pis. xxxix, xliv. The base of the tomb was 
1 1 inches over the sand, and therefore dug 
about four feet deep from the surface of that 
time. This burial was unusually rich in 
having seven flint bracelets on the left arm, 
besides one flint bracelet on the right arm ; 
also a flint knife (xvii. 28) under the head. 
Tn the earth over the body were black lines all 
in one plane, with streaks of bright haematite ; 
this stuff was probably a rush mat painted with 
ruddle. Between the bowl 52 and the wall 
was the skull of an animal (gazelle?) By the 
head were about 8 inches of carnelian heads. 
about (i inches of steatite tuhe heads, the same 
of green glaze ball heads, and some long glazed 
tube beads. In front of the body beneath the 
hand was a huge rough stone. The thickness 
of the walls was measured (12 inches), but the 
height could not he traced. The south wall 
was not found. 



M 15. From the bareness of this tomb, and 
the poorness of its contents (see pis. xxxix, 
xliv) it seems probable that it had been robbed 
anciently. The west wall was not traced. 

M 18. This was another bare tomb with 
only the commonest pottery and broken stone 
vases. It lay next to M 15, and had probably 
been robbed. At the S.W. corner was the 
skeleton of a gazelle. 

M 19. This was the richest tomb of all, 
having twenty-two stone vases. We see here, 
as also in the next two tombs, large blocks of 
natural rough rolled stones laid on the floor of 
the grave. These are placed at the head and 
the feet ; and in each grave they mark out the 
line of the cylinder jars placed by the head. 
It seems likely that these stones were the 
bases of wooden pillars or props which sup- 
ported the roofing, and which delimited an 
inner space around the body. There may even 
have been a central boarded chamber with some 
objects placed in it and others grouped outside 
of it. This would be like the central wooden 
chamber of the royal tombs of Zer, Zet, and 
Den, with the offerings in spaces outside of it. 
In M 19 the stone vases by the head, and the 
pottery cylinders 9 — 12, would all be piled up 
within the chamber ; and the group of stone 
vases at the north end would lie outside. In 
M 12 the cylinder jars 14, 15, bowls 4 and 
slate, would be stood up inside the chamber, and 
the other offerings in lines outside. In M Hi 
the large slate 48 and alahaster 8 would be 
leaning against the chamber side, and the 
vases 6, 22, 37 — 40, 50, 51 stacked inside; 
also the vases 10— 12, IS, 32, 43, 45, 47, and 
the howls 42, 44 leaning against the side. On 
the decay of the woodwork the vases would 
naturally fall over into the positions in which 
we find them. Thus the arrangement of the 
contents points to some inner framing of wood, 
which rested on the Large stones as a footing. 
In the section (pi. lxxx) it is seen that neither 
the walls nor the interment reach down to the 



THE TEMENOS OP OSIJ 



17 



clean sand ; within the walls is a layer of broken 
bricks and lumps of rubbish, and then curved 
strata of town rubbish, charcoal and pot- 
sherds,— filling up the hollow, where the roof 
had collapsed. There is 7 to 12 inches of house 
rubbish beneath the walls; and in the middle 
mud wash up to 15 inches, and then broken 
brick to 25 inches over the sand. 

A very curious point in this burial is thai 
at 13 upon the knees was part of the knee bone 
of an ox, and at 14 upon the humerus was pari 
of the shoulder blade of an ox. These bones 
must have been intended to act by sympathetic 
magic, in order to impart the strength of the 
ox to the limbs of the deceased. For the 
references to the vases see pis. xli, xlvii. The 
large vase 16 had the lesser one 26 placed in 
it, and 36 also in it beneath 26. Bowl 170 
was placed in 70, and 178 in 78. The north 
wall of the tomb was not traced, nor was the 
thickness of the walls ascertained. 

M. 12. This grave was opened up late one 
afternoon, and I planned and removed the stone 
vases before dark, but had to leave the rest for 
daylight ; unfortunately one of the boys thought 
that I had finished the ground in the middle, 
and cleared it out next morning, so the attitude 
of the skeleton was not observed beyond the 
place of the head. Of course that was the last 
tomb that boy ever touched. The vase figures 
are given on pis. xxxvi, xlii, xliii ; the P 
placed to some bowls denotes polished red 
pottery. On the N.E. stone was a slate palette 
4d ; on that the basalt bowl 4c, in that the 
blue volcanic stone bowl 4b, and in that the 
basalt bowl 4a. The alabaster saucer 8 was 
placed in two pottery saucers containing mala- 
chite chips ; and the alabaster 9 was in a pile of 
six pottery saucers. The pan 38 contained 
wood ashes. The pot and saucer 43, 44 were 
high up on the west side. 

M. 16. This tomb had walls preserved higher 
than any of the others, being 52 inches over 
sand ; as the level of its age is 55 inches in the 



town strata, the wall is preserved up to the 
original surface. The body bad a Blate bracelet 
nil tin' right Fore-arm, and three shell bracelets 
mi tin' left. Two heads, of goat or gazelle, lay 

before it : seme leg hones to die north "I' the 
beads ; and behind the body many gazelle bones, 
and another head. The large pan. 20, behind 
the 1m .(I \ was base upwards. For the forms "1 

Vases see pis. xl. \lv. 

M. 13. This was the largesi "t the tombs, 
and contained the greatest amount of pottery, 
and also copper tools; but three other tombs 
contained more stone vases. So it is true <4 
these tombs, as of others, that the pottery seems 
to replace the stone vases. The south part of 
the tomb was first uncovered, and cleared as far 
as beyond the feet of the skeleton, by under- 
mining the side of the cutting. A marker was 
then put down beyond the feet, and the nortli 
part cleared while the south was refilled ; the 
marker served thus to connect the measure- 
ments, but the whole space was not seen at one 
time, owing to the great depth of the earth. 
Over most of the floor a cobble paving of rough 
desert stones, about four to six inches across, 
was laid down. This paving did not extend up 
to the Avails in most parts, but on the east side 
it ran out under the line of the wall, though I 
could not verily if there was really walling over 
it there. In the second clearance, of the north 
end, I did not observe any paving ; but it was 
not easy to see, as it was covered with thick 
mud, and could only be felt for by slicing the 
soft mud with a knife. The section of the tomb 
is shown in pi. lxxx. The wall extends from 
15 below the sand to 52 over it; mud wash 
rises to 12 over the sand, and above that are 
curved strata of town rubbish, and broken brick 
at the sides. 

The body was peculiar in having the spine, 
severed at the fifth vertebra, with five inches 
separation between the parts, and yet the arm 
lying on the severed vertebra with its bones 
in joint and quite undisturbed. It seems 

c 



18 



ABYDOS I. 



impossible to suppose that the spine has merely 
fallen apart during decay. The right femur 
was 19-0 ins. (480111.111.), the left femur 19*2 ins. 
(489 m.m.) long, which is a very full size for a 
male. There were four carnclian beads at 
intervals around the head. Behind the body 
were two heads of calves and the bones of a 
bird. 

The vases are figured on pis. xxxvii, xxxviii, 
xliii. The large pottery cylinder jars made 
in imitation of alabaster were filled with clean 
sand. A bowl, 63, was inverted over 13. A 
second bowl was placed under bowl 12. In the 
deep bowl 2 was painted stuff (linen or leather), 
a bone netter, a rough pan, a rough brown jar, 
bird bones, and bits of limestone painted red. 
The saucer 4 contained white paint. The large 
jar 41 was in the earth outside of the tomb 
limits, and it hardly seems likely to belong to 
the tomb, but rather to be one of the jars left 
in the town ruin at an earlier date. Beyond 
the feet, near the north end, the copper tools 
were found lying together ; the position is not 
certain, as they were moved in the course of 
clearing, and I had to rely on the workman's 
observation. With the copper tools described 
on p. 23 (pi. 1) were also two polished black 
quartzose stones, doubtless used for hammering 
and burnishing metal. This tomb is kept at the 
Cairo Museum to be arranged as an example 
of the burial of the 1st Dynasty. 

It is unfortunate that this series of fine graves 
was placed in so low a situation, where, by the 
rise of water level, they are now below high 
Nile level, and the soil is so wet that it can, 
with a little shaking, be poured out from the 
vases as a stream of mud. This wet has 
decayed all the bones, so that it was impossible 
to keep one whole, and it has also made it 
difficult to trace the walls or the structural 
details, or to find small objects in the soft mud. 
But having been buried over with some twenty 
feet of earth above them, these tombs have been 
preserved from later robbers, and we are able 



now to reconstruct in our museums these 
sumptuous burials of the earliest age of the 
Egyptian monarchy. 

19. It is hardly needful to say much in 
detail about the pottery of the M. tombs, pis. 
xxxvi— xli, as the classes have been noticed 
in describing the pottery of the early town, 
section 16. In some plates it has not been 
thought needful to repeat the varieties of the 
large jars, but cross references are given from 
one to another. (Correct the lowest reference 
on pi. xxxvi. 45, from 57 to 67.) In some 
cases of large numbers of bowls no separate 
number was attached to each, but the stars put 
to some forms show how many examples were 
found. The large jars M. 13 ; 13, 14 are made 
of light drab pottery in imitation of alabaster. 
The bottle M. 13, 65 is of hard pale pottery, like 
all the late pre-historic bottles (Naq. L. 60 — 66). 
In the tomb M. 18 there were practically only 
two forms of pottery, the bowl 3 and the vase 4, 
and the slight varieties are not noted separately 
in place. 

The stone vases, pis. xlii — xlvii, were found 
in all of the M. tombs ; sometimes there were 
only a couple, but in M. 19 as many as twenty- 
two. They were almost always buried in 
perfect condition, for though the more tender 
ones have often been broken, the exact position 
of the fragments shows that they were buried 
entire. In one case, M. 18, the pieces lay as if 
the bowl and vase had been broken before 
burial ; and as this tomb contained only very 
common pottery, some disused broken stone 
vases may have been put in, for economy. 
Certainly there is no sign of " killing " the 
vases of either stone or pottery at the burial. 
The alabaster cylinder jars are mostly rather 
coarse and carelessly made, as if for funeral 
purposes, and are not nearly as well finished 
as those of the royal tombs. The splendid tomb 
M. 19 is again exceptional in having much finer 
vases than the others. 

It will be seen in 11. T. ii, stone vases IV, 



THE TBMBNOS OF OSIRIS 



I" 



None 


Plain 


Corded 


o 


— 


3 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


3 

1 


1 


1 


— 


— 


2 


2 


4 


4 



359, 360, 363, 364, thai the curlier forms down 
to Zer are nearly equal in diameter from top to 
base; whereas the later forms swell <>ut ai one 
end or at both ends, as 374, 375, 377—392. 
This agrees to the M. tombs belonging to the 
earlier part of the 1st Dynasty, as most of the 
jars are cylindrical. It is remarkable thai there 
seems to be a deliberate selection of all of the 
varieties of cylinder jar for each tomb. Sunn/ 
have no hand, some a plain hand, some a corded 
band. They are distributed thus : — 

M. 1 
M. 12 
M. 13 
M. 14 
M. 15 
M. 16 
M. 17 . 
M. 19 

This seems very unlikely to be mere accident, 
as vases belonging to one person, or made for 
one tomb, would probably follow one fashion. 
Different purposes seem to have been in view 
for the different styles of vase. 

Most of the forms of the bowls can be identi- 
fied with forms found in the royal tombs 
(B. T. ii, xlvi — liii.) ; but as this is part of the 
subject of the dates of the tombs it will be taken 
in the next section. 

20. The relations of the ao;es of the various 
classes of remains is the main result that we gain 
from the past season's work. It will be clearest 
to deal with the relations in this order : — 

A. The dating of M. tombs relatively to 

the levels. 

B. The dating of M. tombs relatively to 

kings' tombs. 

C. The dating of levels relatively to kings' 

tombs. 

D. The dating of levels relatively to 

sequence dates. 

E. Joint relations of all classes together. 



A - T " ,1;it the M. tombs in relation to the 

levels we may make 

of the pottery with 1 



the following comparisons 
elled forms : — 



M. 1.35 

'.i 
20 

s. & c 
33 

M. 12. 32 

Kt 
15 
15 
47 

M. 13. L2 
10 
35 

8 
75 
25 
76 

5 

M. 14. 29 

13 

next 4 

1 

M. 15. 17 
over 17 

M. 1 6. next 36 
6 . 
42 & 44 
13, &c. 
5 
37 



M. 19. 



4 
64 
57 
69 
63 
11 



elled ai 42 50 
before 50 j 



in-. 




54 (?) 
after 55 
42—65 

0—77 



54- 



10 
-60 



60 



50 



33(?) 

45 

50 

after 54 

after 55 

56 

18 
19(?) 

49, 60 
after 50 
after 54 
after 55 



55 



iil) 



The age of each tomb must, then, be taken as 
probably equal to that of various levels of the 



20 



ABYDOS *I. 



Level of age 



town between 45 and 60 inches over the sand ; 
the value finally adopted for each being placed 
after the bracket. 

The meaning of this in relation to the con- 
struction of the tomb must be noticed. The 
heights of the walls of the tombs (pi. lxxx) over 
the sand are thus :— 
Tomb 

M. 12 50 

M. 13 45 

M. 16 55 

M. 19 60 

so that the walls where traceable extend to 
3 to 15 inches below what was probably the 
crround level at the time : a conclusion which 
shows that our results by the types of the 
pottery are probably true to a few inches of 
level. 

B. The dating of the M. tombs in relation to 
the royal tombs depends on both the pottery 
and the stone. Taking the pottery first Ave 
see 

M. 1 ; 3 similar to Zer 



Top of wall 
45 
40 
52 
45 



51 
16—19 



about Zet 



/ 



before Mersekha 



Zei 



M. 12; 45 

11, 47 
15 

M. 13; 25—27 
51—23 



Zer 

before Mersekha ' Zer 

before Qa 

Zer 
before Qa 



M. 14; 4,6, 13, 17 all Merneit 
3 



M. 16; 21 



27, 28 
3 
14— IS 



Mersekha ? 

Zer 

as M. 1, Zer 

Zet, Merneit 

Qa 

Zer — Merneit 



Zer 



Merneit 



Merneit 



Zet 



Zet 



M. 18; 4 

M. 19; 50, 75 

57, 58 

65 

10 

11 

60 

69, 94 

Turning to the stone vases Ave see that they 
may be compared Avith those in B. T. ii as 
folloAvs ; M. 1 being omitted as Ave have not the 
sections for comparison. 



Zer 

as M. 1, Zer 

Zet 

Zet, Merneit 

Merneit 

before Mersekha 

Mersekha 



M. 12 






M. 13 






M. 14 






M. 16 




M. r 


I 




9 = 


4ls, 





61 = 


195, 





52 = 


319, 


Z 


50 = 





2 = 


= 59, 





8 


(15, 







250, 





40 


62, 


Y 


51 





1 


460, 


O 


3 


1(15, 





64 


5!), 







107, 


T 


45 


2 IS, 


1 


405, 


z 


3 


250, 





112 


98, 





54 


423, 


T 


Hi 


168, W 


1 


52, 


Y 


i " 


134, 
307. 
217, 




z 
z 














42 


3 Is, Z 


2 


63 


Q 


i •> 
8 
2 













Y 


44 


1 S3 T 




U.I, 










7 


1 '->•>, A 

309, T 






Y 


l;i 


2 1 1, 


T 














49 


66, Q 








11, 


L52, 


Q 
















































Y 

(50, 51 ==Zer 



































It 


T. ii, 


























xxxiv, 71.) 









THE TBMEN08 OF OSIEIS. 



M. is 


M. I!l 




2 = 222, Z 


;;i = 


= 65, 


315, Y 


15 


267, 




6 


304, V 




Z 


21 


• W7, V 




17 


304, Y 




1 


224, T 




30 


107, T 
214, T 




4 


469, U 




20 


1!M), U 




25 


L50, U 



M. 24 



(i = 265, T 
1 146, T 



M.2! 

1 : 



M. 26 
»o, U 5 = 456, V 



U 



Hence putting 
we see 

M. 13 . 


the tombs in 
By pottery 

Zer 


their real order 

By stone 
Zer 


Form 

35 

si 
102 


Level 


12—25 

50 


King 

= Nanner 

Mena 
Zer 


12 . 


. Zer 


Zer 


86 


55 


Zet 


1 . 


. Zer 


— 


150 


50—80 


Zet 


18 . 


. Zet 


Zet 


170 


25 


Merneit ? 


17 . 


— 


Merneit 


10 1 


5 1 


Mersekha ? 


10 . 


Merneit 


Merneit 


.V.) 


14 


Mersekha ? 


14 . 


Merneit 


Merneit 


136 


70—88 


Qa 


2G . 


— 


Merneit 


12!) 


49— (50 


Qa? 


19 . 


Zet 


Den 


61-2 


90—128 


Qa 


24 . 


— 


Den 


116 


85—115 


Perabsen 


25 . 


— ■ 


Mersekha 


Some of th 


ese are diseoi 


•dant. but tliev 



The only discrepancy here is that 19 cannot 
be brought later than Merneit by the pottery, 
and Zet would be better ; while it cannot be 
brought well before Merneit by the stone, and 
Den would be better. So Merneit should be 
best adopted. 

We can now put the town levels thus 
equivalent to the kings' tombs as follows : — 
Zer . . 45, 50, 50 inches level 
Merneit . 55, 60, 60 „ „ 

C. We can further compare the pottery of 
the kings' tombs directly with that found in the 
levels of the town. Not so many comparisons 
can be made as those by means of the M. tombs, 
but they cover a wider range of time. 



only those which were at first marked with a ? 
as being already dubious in themselves ; the 
greater part are fairly accordant, and agree also 
with the equivalent levels ascertained through 
the M. tombs. To this we may add that a piece 
of the same quality of porphyry as that used by 
Mena, was found at 30. I should then conclude 
that the following list cannot be far out as a 
scale of levels equivalent to the reigns. 
inches = Narmer or earlier 

25 Mena (but see under D) 

50 Zer 

55 Zet 

60 Merneit 

65 Den 



22 



A BY DOS I. 



75 inches = Azab 
80 Mersekha 

90 Qa 

110 Perabsen 

D. Lastly we have the relation of the levels 
and reigns to the series of prehistoric sequence 
dates. Of course the end of the series is the 
weakest point, as there is no comparison with 
data that come after it, as in other parts. I 
shall here omit all comparisons with types that 
have a long range of sequence dates, or a range 
that extends up to 80, as they are of no use ; 
also those ranges before 70, as it is certain that 
they cannot be in question here. The useful 
material then is : — ■ 



Type 


S.D. 


Level 


Figure 


D. 27 


—75 = 


— 7 


206 


L. 40 


—76* 





131 


R. 65d 


—72 





154 


R. 34c 


—73 





45 


L. 19b 


—76* 





52 


R. 62 


—77* 


5 


160 


D. 27 


—75 


8 


205 


L. 30 


—78* 


5—22 


93 


R. 57a 


—75 


14? 


184? 


W. 80 


79, 80* 


12—55 


84—86 


L. 86 


72, 76 


23 


197 


L. 50b 


78* 


23 


125 


L. 78a 


73 


30 


32 


L. 17c 


—79* 


38 


54 


R. lc 


—72 


40 


1 


L. 19a 


—78 


42 


53 


R. 38 


—75 


43 


47 


L. 44 


—78 


50 


127 


R. 34a 


—79 


40—60 


36,38 


by the series 


of cylind 


er jars 




Type 


S.D. 






\\\ 71a 


78— 


80 = Ka 




80 


79— 


HO = Ka 




85 


80 


= Mena 


90 


80 


= Zet, 


Merneil 



incomplete, but not likely to be carried on too 
far, so it is truest to take the latest range of 
s.d. corresponding to each level. Looking over 
these I. should conclude that the probable truth 
is shown by the starred instances above, which 



give in round 


numbers 




S.D. 


Level 


King 


76 







77 


10 




78 


20 


Ka 


79 


40 


Mena 


80 


55 


Zet 



Now inasmuch as the knowledge of the ranee 
of sequence date of each type is likely to be 



Here it is certain that Ka = 78 s.d., and must 
come therefore to level 20 ; and therefore Mena 
must be put to a higher level than was done in 
the table of levels and reigns. 

A final summary of the results from all the 
evidence together may now be given : re- 
membering that the kings' tombs show the 
pottery of the end of each reign. The date is 
given in years merely to show the intervals, and 
not as implying any total accuracy. 

s.d. Level King Date b.c. 

76 ... 5000? 

77 1<) 

78 20 Ka 4900?— 4870? 

79 40 Mena 4777—4715 
50 Zer 4715—4658 

80 55 Zet 4658—4627 
60 Merneit 4627—4604 
70 Den 4604—4584 
75 Azab 4584—4558 
80 Mersekha 4558—4540 
90 Qa 4540—4514 

110 Perabsen 4390—4373 

Very precise accuracy is not to be expected 
from a scale of numbers of tombs, as the s.d. 
scale, or from a scale of rate of accumulation all 
over a town. But the general agreement is 
quite as near as we could expect ; and we see 
that 5 or 10 inches is a matter of some per- 
ceptible value in the levels of the town site that 
we arc dealing with here. 



TIIK TBMEN08 OP OSIRIS. 



•23 



The close of the series of sequence dates, at 
80, is best fixed by the cylinder jars which I 
have trusted, as they are generally in accord 
with the vaguer indications of the other pottery. 

21. Plate 1. The Slates, Tools, &c— At 
the top of the plate is the expanded design 
which is painted on a howl of rough red pottery, 
the outline of which is shown below. The ' 
painting is done with red ochre, coarsely put on 
with a brush. It was found at level 23, and is 
therefore about the time of king Ka. The 
animal to the left seems by the horns to be in- 
tended for the kudu, now known in Abyssinia ; 
the design of birds on a tree is not known on 
any other Egyptian pottery. Beyond the two 
animals in the middle are probably two forms of 
snaring nets, and a goat and kid seem to have 
been on the part now lost. Above the drawing 
are some fragments of painted pottery of the 
late prehistoric style, with the levels where 
found. 

A few slate palettes were found loose in the 
town ruins. They are all of late type, already 
known to belong to sequence dates almost as 
late as here found. Beside these see pi. xxxvi, 
M. 12, 4d ; pi. xl M. 16, 47, 48 ; pi. liii, 12. A 
curious piece of yellow limestone from level 11 
with four holes at the corners is shown at the 
beginning of the copper tools ; one side is 
rounded and one flat. The use of it is un- 
known. 

The copper tools were mostly found in grave 
M. 13; a square axe, a round-headed adze, a 
cutting-out tool (broken) and the ends of two 
knives ; all these lay together at the N. end of 
the grave (see pi. xlix). Another square axe 
was found at level 53. These tools are of 
exactly the pattern of those found at Abadiyeh 
(see Diospolis vii) which were dated to s.d. 78. 
Here M. 13 is about s.d. 79, and the other axe 
about s.d. 80. The long double-edged cutting- 
out tool found at level 20 is wider than the 
form from the tomb of Zer (B. T. ii pi. vi, 24) ; 
for the series of such tools, and their use, see 



Man litiil art L23. A small square-bodied 
chisel was found at 25 level. 

\t (he base of the plate are some marks on 
pottery, others of which are on pi. xxix. They 
are of much the same nature a- those already 
published, except the strongly alphabetic forms 
marked broadly with the fineer O K and P. 

22. The amulets and small personal objects 
found in the town were not frequent ; but they 
are of special value as being better dated than 
any found before. PL li. 1 is a cylinder of 
translucent Iceland spar, pierced to hang on 
a necklace, similar to the drop-shaped pendant 
of alabaster in tomb M. 1 4, see pi. xliv. 

2 is a slate pendant which seems to be a 
model of a stone axe of a form not known in 
Egypt ; found loose in top rubbish, so uncertain 



m age. 



3 is a rather similar pendant of green glaze, 
also undated. 

4, 5, are bull's head pendants of green 
serpentine, of a type well known in prehistoric 
time (see Man 1902, art. 14; Diospolis p. 20) ; 
and these prove that the form continued to the 
early kings though the origin of it was certainly 
forgotten when 5 was made, probably under 
Mena. 

6 is a pendant of earthy green serpentine, 
perhaps derived from the form of a shell, such 
as continued in use to the Xllth Dynasty. 
Beginning of Dyn. 0. 

7 is a pendant of clear green serpentine, 
shaped like the brilliant green beetles which 
are now brought to Egypt from the Sudan. 
Beginning of Dyn. 0. 

8, 9, are two forehead pendants of thin slate 
and shell, of the kind usual in late prehistoric 

time. 

10 is a piece of a model cylinder seal, made 
of clay, with the hieroglyphs I; m . 

11 is a cylinder of light green glaze, with 
three crocodiles incised. (Cairo Museum.) 

12 is a cylinder of dark violet glaze, with 
incised hieroglyphs ; these seem to read "'give 



•21 



AUYDOS I. 



the house of bread to thee " ; the house of bread 
being an early equivalent of the per-hheru of 
later funeral inscriptions. This type of inscrip- 
tion is just that found on most of the early 
black cylinders, which mention offerings and 
provisions, and usually have a figure seated 
before a table of offerings ; such cylinders seem 
to have been the earlier form of the prayer, 
which was later expressed on the innumerable 
funeral steles. Reign of Zer. 

13 a fragment of slate palette from level 52 ; 
about reign of Zet. 

14 a piece of carved ivory inlay, such as is 
found in the royal tombs of Merneit, Den, and 
Azab (/?. T. ii, xxxix, 37; xl, 45—8; xlii, 
71-2). The level of it, 40 inches, points to the 
beginning; of the reign of Zer. 

© © © 

15 an ivory draughtsman, rather different 
from those of Mena and Zer, but more like that 
of Den (7i\ 7'. ii, xli, 74) ; this seems to be of 
the level of Zer. 

Ki, the tip of an ivory 'arrow, of the form 
used by Zer (R. T. ii, xxxiv, 47), and the level 
shows the same reign. 

17 a fragment of the incised black pottery 
Avith white inlay ; from the level this may be 
about the Illrd or IVth Dynasty. 

18, 19 ivory pin with spiral end, and ivory 
crossdined cylinder. 

20 a shell notched as a scraper, probably for 
cleaning fish (see Kahun, viii, 10). Age of 
Mena. 

21a model knife of flint ; age of Mena. 

22 a model forked lance of flint ; age of Den. 
This is a good link in the series of such objects ; 
at first Ave find forked lances of flint in the pre- 
historic age, from the earliest times (Diospolis 
iv). Next there is a forked lance set in a gold 
handle as a funereal implement, of the later 
prehistoric age (Annates du Service ii, 131). 
Next there is the implement reduced to a, 
model in the 1st Dynasty. After that there is 
this form in the sets of funeral offerings in the 
VTth Dynasty (Dendereh xxi) where a slab of 



limestone has the models of the various funereal 
implements let into it. And thus Ave reach the 
pesh-ken amulet, of Avhich a fine example Avas 
found of the Xllth Dynasty (Diosjiolis xxv, 
Y 61, middle group), carved in carnclian, Avith 
a gold head in a wig as the handle of it. 
It seems also further that this amulet may 
be continued in Avhat is usually classed as a 
double feather, on the mummies of the XXVIth 
Dynasty. Two forms of feather amulet certainly 
exist, the straight feathers, and the two plumes 
Avith rounded tops ; a third form Avith pointed 
ends turned outAvard, is found on the same 
mummies Avith the other tAvo, so it cannot be 
a variant of either of those ; and as no such 
feathers are shoAvn elseAvhere this is probably 
the pesh-lcen amulet modified by confusion with 
the double plumes. (See Man, 1902, art. 64.) 

23 is one of the discs of pottery Avith ground 
edges, and a ground hole, several of which were 
found ; this bears a sign cut upon it. Age of 
Zet. 

The four sealings Avere found just outside 
of the temenos, in some Old Kingdom town 
rubbish beneath the portal of Ramessu II. 
They seem from their style to be of about the 
middle of the Ilnd Dynasty. 

The fishdiook is about the age of Merneit. 
The bone netter or bodkin, and blue glazed 
button, arc undated. 

PI. Hi. The beads are all levelled and so 
approximately dated. The top string and 
circle of shells is of the beginning; of the Ilnd 

O © 

Dynasty. The second string of Zer or Zet. 
The third string M. 14 is of Merneit; and the 
small beads, 91 level, must be at the end of the 
1st or early Ilnd Dynasty. They are of forms 
Avell knoAvn in the later prehistoric age. 

The limestone spindle whorls Avere abundant 
in the toAvn. Many were undated, being found 
in the shifted rubbish. Those here of one date 
are put into the same column ; and they range; 
from the beginning of Dynasty to about the 
time of Den. There is some change of form, 



THE TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. 



25 



the early ones being more regular and flatter 
than the later; about ."><> a coarse cylinder form 
appears, and soon after larger and bigher conical 

forms. 

At the bottom of the plate arc some later 
objects. The piece of a slate cubit has the 
digits 12, 1."., and 14, marked on the top; on 
the edge are as many divisions as the number 
of the digit, a favourite way of giving a scale of 
all fractions of the digit; on the base are some 
fragments of hieroglyphs. The arrowhead is of 
bronze; it was found within the thickness of a 
brick wing of the Kamesside portal, according 
to the workman, and its appearance agreed 
with this statement; so this gives a date for the 
large quantity of such arrowheads picked up at 
Abydos. The piece of a large blue glazed nnH 
is of Ramessu II ; it was probably a piece of 
temple furniture like the anhh of Tahutmes III 
(Dendereh xxiii, 7). The weight marked with 
four strokes is of black quartzose stone, 1590 grs. 
or 4x397. The lazuli bead was found in the 
temple with the XXVIth Dynasty sculptures; 
it beat's the name " Psamthek mer Asar." 

PI. liii. 1. A fragment of crocodile bone 
appears to have been carefully shaped like a 
bull's head, probably as an amulet. Found 
loose, undated. 

2. A flint flake has at one end an attachment 
which seems to be calcareous clay or cement : 
the material might be a natural concretion; but 
the symmetry of the form of it seems to show 
that it has been intentionally modelled like two 
horns. Unlevelled. 

3. Disc of gold and strip with turned edge, 
found doubled up together ; they fit so well 
that it seems likely they were stripped from a 
gold-headed stick. Level 91 ; beginning of 
Ilnd Dynasty. 

4. 5. Pieces of glazed quartz, with holes for 
affixing. Found loose. 

6. Limestone figure of a bird, found loose. 

7, 8. Green glazed figures of baboons, found 
at about 70 level, age of Den. 



9 — 12. Green glazed apes, and beads, tube 
and hall forms; slate palette with crossed 
corners. All these I removed from the earth at 
28 level, and therefore before the 1st Dynasty. 
There are a huge number of beads, and the 
whole seems to have belonged to a woman. 
The resemblance of these baboons to those of 
the main deposit at Ilierakonpolis of the age of 
Narmer should be noted. (See Eieralconpolis i, 
xxii, I 1. 12.) 

13 -18. Many pieces of pottery were found, 
which I guessed to he parts of fire places, and 
at last a whole fire ring was found entire 
with a deep bed of white wood-ashes within it. 
The forms 15 and 16 seem to come from an 
encircling serpent of pottery round the place, 
with its head turned inward to the fire; thus 
combining the agatln daemon — which was the 
domestic fetish of the prehistoric age — with the 
hearth place. The levels of the pieces arc'; — 
tig. I 7 at 17 level, a plain zigzag like fig. l(i at 
IS level; fig. 1G at 20 level; fig. 13 at 20 level ; 
a piece of a corner with notched ledges like 17, 
at 28 level; and a piece like 14 at ">"> level. 
Thus most of these are at 17 — 28 level or a few 
reijms before Mena ; and one is of the age of 
Zet. 

19 — 22. Many pieces of ribbed tiles covered 
with green or violet glaze were found, like 
those found at Hierakonpolis. The piece 1!) is 
the earliest, found at 1!) level, or some reigns 
before Mena; the others were from 12, 36 and 
38 levels, or about the reign of Mena. The 
style of ribbed inlay ornament, and the coloured 
glaze on other objects, are both familiar in the 
royal tombs of the 1st Dynasty. 

23 — 34. In many parts of the town stone 
"Tinders were found, which from their forms 
were evidently used in manufacturing the in- 
numerable stone bowls of the early dynasties. 
The examples here are arranged to show the 
different views of the grinders; 2 1, 30, .".I, 33, 
34, are all in side view, showing the curvature 
which they would produce, 24 being for a deep 



26 



ABYDOS I. 



cup and 34 for a wide shallow dish ; the other 
grinders are placed in base view, showing the 
hollow or notch on each side by which they 
were held in a stick so as to be turned round. 
They were usually found in a layer of white 
sand and stone dust, evidently the refuse of the 
grinding powder which was used with them. 
The levels of these showed that they belong to 
all parts of the 1st Dynasty. With these we 
must connect the crescent flints (xxvi, 305 — 
314), which were mostly found in a stratum of 
sand and stone dust, sloping between 80 and 
50 level ; from such association it is clear that 
they were used for the vase business, and as 
preliminary drills they would be effective on 
most of the stones that were worked. Their 
age runs throughout the 1st Dynasty. Similar 
crescent flints have been found in the Illrd 
Dynasty at Beit Khallaf. 

35, 36. These rough red pottery figures of a 



hippopotamus head, and a kneeling leg, wei*e 
found loose in the rubbish, and therefore un- 
dated ; they are of the same class as the early 
pottery figures from Koptos. 

37. A very rough scniatting figure in lime- 
stone, found at the base of the town. 

38. A strange piece of a large object of red 
pottery, marked all over with deeply cut 
triangles ; possibly part of an animal figure. 



39. A torso of 



a human figure in 



rough 



pottery. 

40. Pottery figures of kine, of which the 
upper one is fairly modelled : they were found 
at 55 level, about the age of Zet, in the S.E. 
cornier of a space filled with sand, which may 
have been the foundation of a building. In 
that case the space was probably dug down 
as a hollow, and hence the town level would 
be higher then, about the end of the 1st 
Dynasty. 



27 



CHAPTE 1 1 Ml 



THE OSIRIS TEMPLE. 



23. As we have already stated, the Osiris 
temple occupied but a small part of the greal 
temenos which was later built around the site. 
The temple of the XVIIIth Dynasty, which is 
the lowest level yet cleared on this site, had 
close around it a massive brick wall, some 
thirty feet thick ; in the west side of which was 
a great pylon of red granite, opening into the 
rest of the larger temenos. As the plans are 
necessarily still so incomplete, they are not 
published this year ; but a general surface view 
of the site is given in Mr. Grarstane's El Arabah. 

© O 

The temple buildings principally consist of 
two parts : the first, or easternmost, is a square 
building, of which nothing but foundations and 

©? © 

loose blocks remain ; the second part has still 
the lower few feet of the walls of two pillared 
halls and some chambers. 

In the square building were blocks of the 
XVIIIth — XXXth Dynasties, and foundation 
deposits of the XVIIIth— XX Vlth Dynasties. 
The halls behind were built by Amenhotep I, 
and perhaps added to until the XXVIth 
Dynasty. Outside of the whole temple block, 
in the south of the great temenos are other 
buildings of the XlXth and the XXXth 
Dynasty. Until the excavations are com- 
pleted it is premature to discuss the exact 
history of the site. At least it may be said 
that as the town of the earliest dynasties lies 
just behind this temple site, it is probable that 
the earliest temple stood there also ; for a later 
temple would not be built on town ruins, nor 
would it be likely to abandon the primitive 
sacred ground. 



The inscriptions, as such, are dealt with by 
Mr. Weigall in chap, v; so here we are con- 
cerned more with the position and historical 
meaning of the various sculptures. 

24. The remains before the XIIili Dynasty 
are not numerous (see pis. liv-lvii), as the 
work has not yet reached the true level of that 
age in the temple ground, and all the stones 
that have been obtained are re-used. The 
blocks of Merenra, Mehtiemsaf (pi. liv), were 
found in the foundation of the hall next to that 
of Amenhotep I : they are of slight and rough 
work, but show that some building was done ■ 
in the Vlth Dynasty, so more may be found in 
future. No buildings of this king were yet 
known, except his pyramid ; so any further 
results will be of value. 

The three pieces of large private steles, pi. liv, 
were found near together in the square temple 
site. From the work it seems likely that they 
belong to the Vlth Dynasty. The left hand 
upper piece is from the left of a stele ; the 
lower is the bottom of the right side of a stele ; 
the right hand piece is from the upper right 
hand of a stele. These belong to two if not 
three steles ; and unfortunately only one name 
is left, that of a mother, a royal favourite Adu. 

The clay sealing of Shepses-kaf (pi. lv, 1), is 
the only such known in the IVth Dynasty; 
and other remains of him are extremely rare. 
The royal name is seen in the third column, 
and the first column gives his lea name, which 
was hitherto unknown. It reads Shepses, " the 
noble " ; and it gives a further proof that the 
hawk name was that of the king's lea, for as 



28 



ABYDOS I. 



this ha name is Shepses, so the king's throne 
name is Shepses-kaf, " his ka is noble." This 
is the only instance of a personal name derived 
from the lea name. 

The Yth Dynasty is represented by the lower 
part of a limestone seated figure of Assa 
(pi. lv, 2). No figures of this king are hitherto 
known. The stone is a soft fawn-coloured 
limestone ; and the upper part was originally 
joined on by tenons, the dowel holes of which 
are seen on the upper surface. The work is 
fine and detailed, making us regret the loss 
of the head and body. The inscription is 
merely the ha name and throne name. The 
Vlth Dynasty inscriptions have already been 
described. 

The Xlth Dynasty opens with an important 
stele of Nekht, a son of King Antef (pis. lv, 8, 
lvii). Unhappily only two quarters of it 
remain, which were found in the square temple 
ruins. The stone is a coarse, soft, limestone, 
which was cut very thick in order to give it 
sufficient strength. The signs are roughly cut, 
and were coloured red. The figures are those 
of a king Antef and his son Nekht, before 
whom probably stood a figure of Anher or of 
Osiris. The temple of Antef is named, which 
we might call the Antefeum in Abydos. And 
Nekht is the follower of the royal son of the 
Seq Antef; so he must have been attached to 
an elder brother's retinue. The mention of the 
Eeq points to this king being the first of the 
Antefs, as the later kings use the usual royal 
titles. 

Antef V built largely at Abydos, probably 
renewing the temple of Osiris, as he did that 
of Min at Koptos. We found many pieces of 
columns of fine white limestone (pis. lv, 3 — 5 ; 
lvi) ; and one architrave with cartouches read- 
ing in each direction from a central anlch, as on 
the slab of Usertesen (pi. lviii) ; but the ci\^(^ 
had been trimmed off, so as to form a rough 
octagonal pillar in later times, and only a 
narrow middle strip of the face remains, so that 



we left the block on the site. The pieces of 
columns do not fit together, excepting that 
lv, 4 and 5, may reasonably fit at an original 
joint in the stone. On pi. lvi the total height 
of the columns is indicated at the top by the 
first column, and continued below by the 
parallel inscription on the second. The dimen- 
sions of the capital are 18" 1 inches wide at top, 
17-1 below, 8'8 high; the shaft 17"4 wide at 
24 down, but dressed narrow just below the 
capital to give it some projection. It is 
remarkable that, even in this temple of Osiris, 
the king is named as beloved of Anher of Theni. 
The piece of column on the left in pi. lvi is of 
rather a different style, and might be of a 
another reign, perhaps of Usertesen I. Most 
of these pieces of columns are taken for the 
Cairo Museum. 

25. Of the Xllth and XHIth Dynasty there 
are many striking remains ; the colossal red 
granite statues of Usertesen I found by Mariette, 
showing that the temple was greatly adorned 
at this time. To the later part of the Xllth, 
or to the Xlllth Dynasty, must be attributed 
the head of a colossal statue of red granite 
(lv, 6, 7), which was found with other fragments 
beneath a mass of loose dust a little to the 
south of the Kom es Sultan in the great 
temenos. 

The slab of Usertesen I, shown in pi. lv, 9, 10, 
and pi. lviii, is of a form as yet unknown. Tn 
the photograph (9) it is seen to be a thick slab, 
finished on the front and sides, but rough below 
with a projection downward along the back. It 
is about 9 inches thick, ?> ft. deep back, and 4 ft. 
wide. Now not far from it, also to the south 
of the Kom es Sultan, lay another block (10), 
of the same width, and of a depth backward 
which would just end clear of the projection in 
the upper block. What clenches their relation 
is that the two strange grooves in the front of 
the upper Mock (9) exactly lit over the two 
holes in the lower block (10). The lower block 
is quite rough and unfinished around the edges, 



THE OSIRIS TEMPLE. 



29 



and was certainly to be sunk in an unseen 
foundation. Bence the upper block musf have 
been only a step, 9 inches high, on the floor. 
The holes seem to have been for poles to be se1 
upright, in the line of the froni of the step. 
On the Hat upper face are three lines of 
inscription (pi. hiii), which from their style 
seem to be of the Xlllth Dynasty. Thus the 
surface of the >ir[> was always clear ami hare. 
The middle line is rather more worn than the 
side lines; hut the space between the poles, 
13 inches, is not enough for passing, and the 
wear must be due to placing objects upon it. 
The whole arrangement is unlike anything thai 
we know in temples elsewhere. 

The ends of the large front inscription run 
round the sides of the block, hearing anhh zet 
ta ; this proves that the step was not built into 
a line, but stood clear and apart, except at the 
back edge. The names of the king in the later 
inscriptions have all been carefully hammered 
out ; but we can recover Ra-sekhem, and in the 
personal name three groups of different heights : 
the Horus name in three groups with v, is 
almost useless to us owing to so few examples 
being known of this period. Of the possible 
kings there are the Nos. 2, 15, 20, 74 and 88 
of the Xlllth Dynasty in the Turin papyrus. 
No. 2 is barred by the Horus name se-arikh-taui. 
No. 88, Sebek-em-saf, will not fit the sizes of the 
three groups in the personal name. Nos. 15 
and 20, Sebekhotep I and II, would fit Avell if 
written out s.b.k. I crocodile on shrine 1 hotep 
t.p. ; but No. 74 whose name is unknown might 
fit equally well. The gods here honoured are 
Up-uat of the south, Up-uat of the north, and 
Osiris Khentamenti. This block and its base 
are taken for the Cairo Museum. 

In the halls at the back of the square temple 
were several blocks of black syenite, from a 
large gateway of Ramessu II. On one of them 
is an inscription of Sebekhotep III, see pi. lix. 
It is shallow in the cutting, and almost effaced 
in parts by the crumbling of the stone, due to 



salt. Behind tl ■ king was his /-.> emblem, a 
head on a pole, with the ka name behind it, and 
the description mten ha •mil. -living lea of the 
king"' above it. 

The fragment of a cartouche at the hase of 

pi. lix is there ( ipleted as Ba'seJehem'nefer' 

hotep; an unknown name. Inn of tin- same type 
as Ba'seJchem'nefer'khau, Op-uat-em-saf. It 
might however he a combined cartouche of 
Ba'kha'seshes'Nefei"hotej3 } with a badly formed 
seshes, like selchem. 

The altar of offerings, outlined in small size 
at the left foot of the plate, was found in the 
cemetery G, lying still in place before a. part of 
the front of a niastaba of about the Vllth 
Dynasty. The inscription is shown more fully 
above. The block with deeply cut inscription, 
next to it, was found near it, in the same 
cemetery. The two-column inscription of a 
uartu of the prince's table, and the seven 
columns of another such official, Sebekhotep and 
his wife Nefert-uhen, were found last year in 
the Xllth Dynasty cemetery. D. 

In pi. lx, No. 1 is a piece of a limestone stele 
from cemetery D, tomb 7b, found last year. 
No. 2 is inscribed on the front of a kneeling 
statue of soft limestone found in the tcmenos 
behind the temple enclosure, near the statue of 
Ptah-em-ua. No. 3 is a part of a stele of lime- 
stone from cemetery G, which bears the in- 
congruous names of Aincny and Sit-pepy. 
No. 4 is a piece of limestone stele from the 
temenos, of the Xlllth Dynasty. No. 5 is a 
fragment of a sandstone figure of a scribe Ab. 
Beside these a large stele of limestone was 
found behind the temple, giving long family 
lists connected with the queen Auhet-abu ; but 
as the copying of it occupied so long a time, it 
must be left over to appear next year. 

26. Of the XVIIIth Dynasty the first 
important work was a large hall, about 30 feet 
wide and 40 feet long, the uof of which was 
borne by six pillars; three chambers adjoined 
this hall; and another and larger hall to the 



30 



ABYDOS I. 



north of it may be rather later in date. These 
halls lie behind the square mass of temple ruins. 
The walls yet remain about 30 inches high, 
bearing the ends of some lines of inscription 
around the doors ; and in the hall and chambers 
were several loose blocks of sculpture. 

From the sculptures (Frontispiece, and pis. 
lxii — lxiv) we see that these buildings were 
erected by Amenhotep I. His personal name 
has been erased from the cartouches, but his 
throne name is intact, which points to the 
erasure being done by Akhenaten. Beside 
Amenhotep there is a figure of Aahmes I (top 
pi. lxii) ; but only as deceased, since he wears 
the menat like Osiris, while Amenhotep I, then 
living, is without that ornament. Besides the 
above head of Aahmes, we may identify another 
at the top right hand of pi. lxiii ; the features 
are like those of Aahmes, and it wears the 
menat. It has been back to back with a figure 
of Osiris, as on the upper scene of pi. lxii. All 
possible fits of these blocks were tried, and 
several were thus connected together. It ap- 
pears that there was a list of offerings along the 
base of the wall, 28 inches high ; then groups 
of the king offering to deities above that, about 
42 high : and a second line of groups yet 
higher up, of the king and his ka about 36 
high ; or altogether about 9 feet height of 
sculpture, besides the plain footing to the wall. 
In the list of offerings possibly the left hand top 
piece might agree better with the base piece 
if transferred one column farther out, as the 
offering henelc nu seems to end in t nebt at Deir 
el Bahri (D. B. pi. cxiii, lowest line) ; but if so 
a short piece must have been fitted in between 
the blocks in the upper part here. 

These blocks were mostly fresh with colour 
when found ; but, unhappily, an extraordinary 
torrent of rain which fell, washed away nearly 
all the surfaces, and destroyed the stones so 
much that several are now not worth transport. 
They had been all drawn, and the photographs 
taken, before this damage. 



A great quantity of finely-sculptured blocks of 
Tahutmes III were found in the square mass of 
temple ruins. The largest was a long architrave 
with richly-coloured hieroglyphs, which may be 
removed to the Cairo Museum. This, and most 
of the rest, had been taken down by Aahmes 
II in the XXVIth Dynasty, and buried for the 
foundations of his temple. Many blocks that 
we have removed only bore usual figures, of 
Osiris, &c, and are not here published. One 
large lintel of Tahutmes III, which was still in 
bright condition of colouring, was sent direct 
to the Boston Museum ; it measured 65 inches 
wide and 35 inches high. Another lintel, which 
was of the same width, was found broken up in 
several pieces, as shown on pis. lxi, 2 ; lxiv ; 
it is of value historically, as it proves that 
Tahutmes II and Tahutmes III were reigning 
jointly together at one time, regardless of 
Hatshepsut, and each bearing the same titles. 

At the base of pi. lxiv are two slabs from the 
square temple ; that with the arm of a goddess 
may be later, but the sphinx is certainly of 
Tahutmes III by the work and portrait ; the 
title over it is not known elsewhere. The 
greater part of a broken seated figure of 
Tahutmes III was also found, to the south of 
the Kom es Sultan. The slab on pi. lxi has 
part of the titles of Tahutmes III, delicately 
carved. Another slab bears the ha name of 
Amenhotep II, and names his sed festival, as on 
the pillar published by Frisse. 

Within the square mass of ruins were found 
two foundation deposits of Tahutmes III in 
pits full of sand, showing that the site was not 
all dug out when the later temple was built. 
The deposit contained the usual pottery of that 
time (see Kojitos pi. xiv), and copper models of 
knives, adzes, and axes (see pi. lxi, 5), with an 
alabaster vase inscribed, and a model shell of 
alabaster with traces of paint inscription. Some 
of the copper tools bear the name of the king, 
and probably all will be found to be inscribed 
when cleaned. The plan and position of the 



THE OSIRIS TEMPLE. 



31 



deposit will lie given in the survey nexl 
year. 

Another deposit pit was found, which only 
contained a green glazed plaque, broken up. 
with the name of Ajnenhotep 1 1 r , and a solid 
stand of limestone of same king, pi. lxi, 3, 4. 

The slab <>f inscription pi. lxi, 6, is injured 
by incrustations of lime, and ha- not vel heeii 

studied. The jasper head. 6g. 7, is from s e 

inlayed work ; it is highly finished, and seems 
as if it might be of the XVIIIth Dynasty. 
The steatite head, fig. 8, may he later : hut 
the blue glass fish, fig. 9, is of finely-cut glass ; 
and, by the colour, not far from the time of 
Amenhotep III. 

27. The XlXth Dynasty has left several 
sculptures, but not any large cpuantity of build- 
ing like the previous age. The principal piece 
is a limestone statue of an official Ptah-em-ua, 
pis. lxv, 2 — 4 ; lxvii. He is represented nearly 
life size, standing, and holding a statue of Osiris 
before him. His offices were keeper of the 
cattle in the temple of Ramessu II, and royal 
scribe of the divine offerings of all the gods ; 
and his full name was Amen-em-per-Ptak-em- 
ua, "Amen in the temple, Ptah in the barque." 
The statue was found over a deep square hole, 
not yet cleared out, at the back of the inner 
enclosure wall of the temple. With it was 
another figure in soft limestone of the great 
Un-nefer, or rather of his son Hora, kneel- 
ing and holding a standing statue of Osiris, 
pi. lxv, 8. 

In the later hall behind the square temple 
was a squatting granite figure of the ubiquitous 
Un-nefer, see pi. lxv, 5 — 7. It was greatly 
crumbled by salt, and I was able to lift off the 
face in one block, the rest of the figure being 
too much broken up to be removed. On the 
back is the inscription naming his mother 
Maatinuy, or Maa-anuy, and his wife Thiy (see 
Lieblein, Diet. 895). While near the great 
temenos wall, apparently turned out from the 
Nectanebo temple, was a granite group of two 



figures (lxv, 9, LO), of Dn-nefer and his wife 
Thiy, suniained Nefertaii The splendid pair of 
seated figures in red granite, of tJn-nefer and 
Ins Father, with a Long genealogy, found two 
years ago, is published in Messrs. Maclver and 
Mace's volume El . Imrah. 

Amid the varied ruins over the early town 
was found a stone building, of which the plan 
is given in pi. lxxx, "In Temenos." The 
native talc is that it was a great tomh, un- 
covered forty years ago by the sebakhin, who 
found three pounds weight of gold ornaments 
in it, which were taken by the Mudir. Our 
interest in it was that it had been built up from 
all kinds of odd stones that were lying about ; 
and contained in its walls, and scattered from 
it, many inscribed blocks. Among these was 
the great stele of the family of queen Auhet-ab, 
mentioned before, and the pieces of a great 
stele of the high official Khay, with his wife 
Ymamu, pis. lxv, 1 1 ; and lxvi. 

Among the minor pieces on pi. lxvi the trial 
piece with birds should be noticed ; and the 
fragment of the hi name of Ramessu I, which 
is rare. The last piece in the top line is a 
rough flake of limestone, with the cartouche of 
Ramessu II scrawled in with a brush of ink. 
On pi. lxvii the inscription of Bay is on a piece 
of wooden furniture, probably not from a coffin, 
as he is not called maahheru. Two pieces of 
black granite squatting figures of Unnefer are 
copied here ; one giving the title priest of 
Sokari, which he had inherited, see Lieb. Diet. 
905. The two inscriptions of Mentu-em-hat, the 
great vizier of Taharqa, are roughly hammered 
upon natural blocks of limestone, which are 
lying loose in the floor of the valley leading to 
the royal tombs ; one appears to record his 
visit, and the other, with maahheru, was pro- 
bably placed in his memory. 

28. The square mass of the temple of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty, was rebuilt by Aahmes II. 
He took down what remained of the previous 
work, and laid it in his foundations. He 



32 



ABYDOS I. 



enlarged the plan, but without caring to relay 
proper foundations ; so his stone walls rest on 
the top of the brick retaining-walls of the 
foundation of Tahutmes III. On one founda- 
tion block arc his cartouches roughly cut, 
at 528 inches from the inside of the S.W. 
corner. 

The principal monument of his time was a 
great monolith shrine of red granite, in the 
usual style of such works, which are familiar to 
us at Esneh, Thmuis, Nebesheh, and other late 
temples. The flat sides of this shrine have long 
since been broken off and carried away, leaving 
only parts of the unmanageable top. The main 
piece has nearly half of two sides of the pyra- 
midion, bearing a large cartouche of Haa-ab-ra 
in the middle of each side, flanked by the 
vulture of Nekheb and the uraeus of Uazit. 
The smaller piece of the opposite two sides 
shows evidently a similar design. The two 
pieces placed upright at each side of the plate 
belong to some other granite work ; or possibly 
to the sides of the shrine, which may have been 
made during the joint reign of Haa-ab-ra and 
Aahmes. The form of the name, Aahmes son 
of Osiris, instead of Neit, is very unusual, and 
was evidently used in honour of this temple. 

The upper table of offerings, pi. lxix, is a 
thin slab of limestone, roughly carved, with 
prayer to Osiris and Khentamenti for the seal 
bearer Heru, a son of Sit-Hathor. The lower 
table of offerings is a thick limestone block, 
with a deep tank in the lower half. It was 
dedicated by Aahmes II, with his usual titles; 
and was placed later in the temple of Nectanebo, 
south of the Osiris temple, whence it was cast 
out on the west side, in the destruction of the 
place. 

On plate lxx are other objects of the XXVIth 
Dynasty. The bronze figures, 1 — 3, are part of 
a large quantity which were found scattered on 
the floor of the great hall, to the north of the 
hall of Amenhotep. Nearly all of these were 
the very common, small, roughly-cast figures of 



Osiris. Fig. 1 is an unusual figure of Horus, 
with the double feather of Amen. Fig. 2 is 
Sekhet ; fig. 3 is the mummified Osiris. 

Near these bronzes was found a portrait head 
in quartzite sandstone (figs. 4-5), larger than 
life-size. The style could hardly be referred to 
any foreign influence, except that of the Roman 
portrait school of the late Republic ; and as 
that is entirely out of the question here, since 
nothing even of l'tolemaic times is found in 
the temple, we must attribute this solely to 
Egyptian sources. The modelling of the skull 
and facial bones is very good, and is of the 
same class as the fine heads in basalt which are 
already known as belonging to the XXVIth 
Dynasty. 

The foundation deposits, figs. 6 — 9, were 
found in various positions. A square plaque 
of Haa-ab-ra, (fig. 6), had been placed on the 
top of the pit containing an undisturbed founda- 
tion deposit of Tahutmes III. A cartouche 
plaque (fig. S), and a square one, were placed 
on the top of another such deposit. But the 
group of small objects, fig. 9, the alabaster, 
fig. 7, and a large number of plaques (figs. G 
and 8) were found scattered loose in the sand, 
near together, having apparently been the main 
deposit of the XXVIth Dynasty building, 
disturbed by the subsequent removal of the 
stones. 

These deposits show the continuance of the 
style of the XlXth Dynasty, which was hitherto 
unknown at so late a date. The bulls' heads, 
haunches, grains of corn, and flowers, are all 
similar to the deposits of the Ramesseum, which 
we should not have expected after the different 
style known in the deposits of Ta-usert, Siptah, 
Psamtek I, and Aahmes. The materials are 
green glaze for the plaques, (!, 8 ; jasper, 
carnelian, green felspsar, and glass for the 
small figures ; and the same stones, with iron, 
cupper, and silver, for the rectangular blocks. 
No gold was found. The meaning of the semi- 
circular slab of alabaster (fig. 7) is unknown ; 



'NIK OSIKIS TEMPI. E. 



33 



but it occurs also in the deposits of Siptah, 
Psamtek I, &c. 

To the south wesi of the temple of < '.-iris, 

but within the greal temenos, -t 1 another 

temple, built apparently by Nectanebo II, as 
a fragment of a cartouche ending in Jea, of very 
late stvle, was funnel here. The retaininer-wall 
of the foundation is over thirteen feel deep. In 
tin 1 wesi end of tin' south side there were two 
circular-headed recesses, one over the other, 
-2 in. wide and deep: the lower recess ai 
58 to 102 in. above the Hour, and the upper at 
109 to 162 in. There were no deposits found 
in these recesses; the upper one had been 
plundered, the lower one was tilled with laid 
bricks; but in the corner in front of the lower 
recess lay the limestone mortar, cake of resin, 
and little plaques of lazuli and carnelian, 
shown in iiir. 11. In the south-east corner, 
just under a stone of the pavement, 4" in. 
below the top of the wall, were found similar 
objects, along with a square of copper, and a 
hemi-disc of alabaster. 

The most unexpected result of the year's 
work has been the discovery of a high style 
of limestone sculpture under the reign of 
Nectanebo I, which preserves the traditions of 
the XVIIIth Dynasty almost unchanged, and 
shows no trace whatever of the surrounding 



influences of Greek art. In the Bquare muss of 
temple ruin were Found portions of four figures 
in hard white limestone, two seated, ami two 
standing joined together. These were all more 
or less destroyed; but, among the large ma 
of chips, we recovered the greater pari of the 
seated figure L2, and the upper half of one of 
the standing figures, 13, I I. The seated figure 
has the delicate curves, the line proportions, and 
the restrained modelling, which we know besl 
in such sculpture as the torsos of Nefert-ythi, 
and other work of the XVIIIth Dynasty. The 
standing figure attracts us by the masterly 
rendering of the face ; for while preserving the 
classical Egyptian treatment, it has a full vitality 
and realism in the expression which might well 
have been copied from the best type of the 
modern Egyptian peasant girl. The preseni 
illustrations are only to give a preliminary idea 
of the workmanship; hut the whole of the 
pieces are now in the Cairo Museum, and, when 
the figures are restored, a fidl publication of 
them on a lar<:e scale, will lie essential. The 
date of this class of work is given by a 
dedication on the front of the pedestal of 
one of the seated figures, which bears the 
cartouches of Nekht-hor-heb, cut with the 
same refinement and delicacy as is shown in 
the sculpture. 



J) 



3-4 



ABYDOS I. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE CEMETERY G. 



29. On the south side of the great valley 
which leads up to the Royal Tombs, a spur of 
the desert runs forward between the temenos 
of Osiris and the great temples of the XlXth 
Dynasty. The whole surface of this hill, for 
about half a mile back, is honeycombed with 
tombs. Those near the desert edge are so close 
together, and have been so completely wrecked 
by Mariette's plunderers, that we have not 
attempted to do anything among them. But 
opposite the old fort (the Shunet-ez-Zebib), and 
further back, only a few of the tombs had been 
opened in modern times. (See B. T. i, pi. iii.) 
During our first winter here, several of them 
were explored, and in the past season, we have 
opened up a good deal of the ground. The 
burials here belong to many different periods. 
Small interments of the prehistoric times are 
frequently found near the surface ; and the 
pottery, and other objects, also occur mixed 
with the earth thrown up in constructing later 
tombs. A part of a mastaba of the Vllth 
Dynasty has been already mentioned, see the 
altar at base of pi. lix. Several tomb-pits 
of the Xlth Dynasty have been opened; they 
are usually placed in pairs, one leading to the 
chamber, the other, about half of the depth, 
probably for offerings ; deeper tombs of the 
Xllth Dynasty have also furnished us with the 
alabaster vases and beads of that age. In the 
XVIIIth Dynast v older tombs were re-used, 
for a burial of a child with vases, and a rich 
burial with a silver pilgrim bottle, gold ring, 
&c. In the XlXth Dynasty a great tomb was 
made here for a priestess Klinumy, from which 



we removed her granite sarcophagus lid, now in 
Cairo. But the principal use of this region 
was from the XXVIth Dynasty to the Ptolemaic 
age. One of the earliest of this group, contain- 
ing five stone sarcophagi, was found beneath a 
large square pillared court of a few centuries 
later, G. 57 (see base of pi. lxxx). The next 
type of tomb was that with two arched chambers 
side by side, beneath a low mastaba of brick- 
work (see G. 50 pi. lxxx) ; these also contain 
stone sarcophagi, sometimes square, sometimes 
shaped like the body. Other less usual types 
of this age are seen in G. 68 and 58. Later 
than these forms are wide square courts of 
brickwork, which were filled up with two stone 
built chambers ; these were evidently derived 
from the form of G. 50, but were later than 
that as the sarcophagi are debased. This form 
was modified to a court with pillars of brick, 
the whole faced with hewn stone, as the upper 
tomb G. 57 ; and, in another case, remains of a 
Greek pediment front of breccia, showed an 
ornamental doorway to have been an archi- 
tectural feature. These great brick courts filled 
with stone work, have in all cases been quarried 
to pieces ; and they are now usually full of 
broken mummies, dogs, and various organic 
rubbish thrown in when the cemetery was 
was cleaned up in later limes. Tn the Ptolemaic 
times the tombs were crowded with bitumenized 
bodies; and soon the system of deep and large 
tombs gave way to that of small chambers, only 
just below the surface, containing only one or 
two sarcophagi in each. These sarcophagi are 
very neatly and boldly cut in soft limestone, 



'Ill: CKMKTKKY Q. 



35 



with a plain wedge-shaped outside; and the 

inside hollowed out in curves, for the head 
ami shoulders. After these, no later burials of 
the Roman or Aral) age arc found on this 

lull. 

30. 'Phe prehistoric tombs always contained 
the bodies contracted, in the usual position, 
head south, face wesi ; most of them were quite 
shallow circular pits, though there was one 
large tomb with over thirty pottery jars, mostlj 
wavy-handled. All of these tombs belonged to 
the later part of the prehistoric age. The 
contents of the tombs of the Xlth — XVIHth 
Dynasties, not having vet been drawn, will be 
described when they are published next year. 
Fragments of a coffin, which seems to belong to 
the XVIIIth or XTXth Dynasty, were found 
in the chamber of a later tomb. The name 
Tahutmes (see pi. Ixxi) is apparently unknown 
after the time of Ramessu II ; though certainly 
the style of the writing here, might well show 
a rather later date. The first and second 



drawings are >ne side of a long strip; the 

third and fourth are from a similar strip, on the 
inner side of which is the fifth drawing; at the 
base of the plate are figured the two sides of a 
corner-posl of the coffin. The style of these 
fragments is remarkably clear and delicate; the 
brown wood has had uo prepared ground, hut 
is left with the fine grain showing ; the colours 
used are black for the inscriptions, green for 
the Nile gods, red and yellow for the other 
figure^. 

31. The large tomb containing five sarco- 
phagi, found below the square court, marked 
(jr. 57 on pi. lxxx. is the earliest of the great 
tombs of the later age. The coffins, it will he 
seen, are lettered A — F ; but I'] had never 
contained a burial, and we shall refer to the 
coffins here, by the letters A. B, C, D. The 
account will be clearer if 1 first state tin- 
genealogy; the letters prefixed to the names 
being those of the sarcophagi in which they are 
mentioned. 



(a) Uah-ab-ra = (a) Nes-her (c, d) Zed-her = (c, d) Ta-khredet-en-Min 



(a, b) Mertiu-heru = (b, c) Ta-se-nekht (d) Mert-tefnut 



(b) Heru-maa-kheru 

The variants of these names in different versions 
should be observed, as they throw a good deal 
of light on the true reading of such forms. For 
instance, in A and B, the eye of Horus varying 
with Mertiu-her; also the duplication of the 
letters r u and the plural strokes, for the simple 
termination of hern ; the variants of Ta-se-nekht 
and Mehit-ta-se-nekht ; also of Mert-tefnut and 
Nes-tefnut, which latter is probably an error 
for the similar form of mer. The value of the 
baboon reading zed, though rare, is already 
known. 

On pi. lxxiii the name Ta-sen-meht, as copied 
by Mr. Weigall in a damaged passage, should 



doubtless read Ta-se-nekht, as on B and C. 
On pi. lxxiv, No. 3 should read Heru-maakheru, 
and Nos. 4 — 7 should read Mert-tefnut. 

We now proceed to describe the details of 
each of the burials, in order. Sarcophagus A 
is that of Mertiu-heru. At the head of it, 
marked 1 , was the base of an Osiride statuette, 
and a model coffin with a jackal upon it, both 
turned upside down, see base of pi. lxxii ; and 
at 3 was the canopic box figured on the same 
plate (lxxii). On raising the stone lid, a large 
wooden coffin was seen inside, inscribed across 
the breast and down to the feet, as copied on 
pi. lxxiii. On opening the coffin, the mummy 



36 



ABYDOS I. 



was seen, covered with a cartonnage ; on the 
head a gilt and bine headpiece, with ebony 
beard; on the neck a collar in bands with 
hawks' heads at the top corners; on the breast a 
figure of Nut with wings extended, coloured, 
and the four genii in gold on a blue ground, 
at the corners; down the legs a gilded strip, 
inscribed ; and on the foot-piece a figure of 
Anubis. The whole of this, as well as the 
wooden coffin, was so much rotted that nothing 
could be preserved. Beneath the cartonnage, a 
network of beads in diagonal squares covered 
the mummy, 20 squares wide at the top, and 
10 below. The colours were alternately five 
squares of green and one of bine, in stripes 
across the body. The left hand was clenched, 
the right hand open ; the arms were crossed on 
the breast ; and along the left humerus was 
a roll of papyrus, too much decayed to be 
opened. 

The sarcophagus B is that of Heru-maa-kheru ; 
at the head of which was placed the model 
coffin, pi. lxxiv, 3, a block base of an Osiride 
statuette, and a decayed canopic box. Upon 
the sarcophagus lay a mummified body, only 
53 in. (1.346 in.) long: this was not quite 
adult, as the basilar suture was unclosed, and 
there was no trace of the third molars, but it 
seems too small to belong to a youth of normal 
stature. On the wooden coffin, inside the 
sarcophagus, was the inscription of Heru-maa- 
kheru, given in pi. lxxiii. The linen wrappings 
of the mummy were thick, and covered with 
pitch ; the arms were crossed on the breast: 
the right hand was open, the left hand clenched 
on a bullions root. 

The sarcophagus C is that of Ta-se-nekht; at 
the foot of it was a model coffin (I in plan), 
with a hawk placed on each corner, and a jackal 
013 the lop ; while between 1! and C was 
another model coffin, with figures of genii 
holding knives, painted on its side-. Portions 
of a wooden canopic box were also found, 
bearing the inscription given in pi. lxxiii 



(named there Ta-sen-meht). Inside the stone 
coffin was a wooden coffin, with an inscription 
in which the name is always spelt Tay-nckht, 
see pi. lxxiii. Upon the mummy was a diagonal 
netwmdc of beads, in vertical stripes of black 
and green alternately, with yellow ball beads at 
the junctions. 

The sarcophagus D is that of Mert-tefhut. 
By the foot of it was a block base of an Osiride 
statuette (7 in the plan) ; and on the other side 
of the tomb, next to B, was the white painted 
canopic box figured in pi. lxxiv, 4 — 7, (3 in 
plan). The wooden coffin inside bore an in- 
scription, the only legible part of which is given 
in pi. lxxiii. On the mummy was a diagonal 
network of beads, in horizontal rows of five 
green squares and one blue square alternately. 
Around these sarcophagi were many other frag- 
ments of funeral furniture, like those already 
described ; but so completely eaten by white 
ants that they could not be examined or pre- 
served. 

The sarcophagus E had its stone lid propped 
up with a course of bricks ; this was evidently 
done in order to open it easily for the next 
burial, but it was found empty and unused. 

32. An important class of tombs at Abydos 
are the large subterranean vaults, with a super- 
structure above them. These were restored by 
Mariette as brick pyramids with a central 
domed chamber; and his restoration has passed 
into a familiar item in later books. He also 
attributed these to the XVIIIth Dynasty. But 
apparently both this restoration and this date 
arc wrong. 

A typical tomb of this class is shown in plan 
and section on pi. Lxxx, <!. 50 : and a view of the 
superstructure is on pi. lxxix, L0. In the first 
place, was this sloping outside ever carried up to 
a point, as a pyramid? If it had been of such 
a form, an immense mass of broken brickwork 
would have resulted from the collapse of the 
pyramid. Vet in no case was any fallen mass 
of bricks found by us within the outer wall; 



THE CBMBTEB i 



and the space between the wall side- was always 
lower than the walls themselves, which could 
not be the case if a mass of bricks, some thirty 
or forty feel bigh, had been disintegrated above 
the tomb. Further, in the instance G. 50 a 
greal mass of gravel, which had been dug oul 
when constructing the chambers, was thrown 
back over the tomb. This gravel had covered 
over the surrounding wall and perfectly pre- 
served it: and it could thus be seen that the 
wall was finished off quite level all round; and 
though sloping smoothly outside, it Avas left 
rough on the inside. The only possible con- 
clusion from the facts is that the surrounding 
wall was that of a mastaba above the tomb, to 
retain a mass of gravel covering the tomb; 
exactly as, long before, over the tomb of k i iilt 
Zet. The whole restoration of these tombs as 
pyramids then is impossible. 

The age of the burials in these tombs, in 
every one that we excavated, was of about the 
XXXth Dynasty ; hence the attribution of 
them to the earlier ages is impossible. 

The photograph, lxxix, 10, is taken looking 
along one side of the sloping mastaba, the 
measuring rod set up at the side being vertical. 
The straight inside of the lower part of the 
wall, is replaced at the corner by overhanging 
courses, each projecting beyond the course 
below, until the square base is replaced inside 
by a circular top. The purpose of this was to 
strengthen the wall at the corners, so that the 
pressure of the gravel tilling should not bulge 
it open. 

The construction of some other tombs may 
be also noted. The great arched tomb < r. 68 
(pi. lxxx) is unique, so far as I have seen. 
Only one chamber was observed : but the mass 
is square at the top, obviously to contain a 
second chamber. The ancient plunderers had 
not tried to reach the doorway, but had sunk 
a shaft down through the outer wall from the 
top, and so revealed the successive courses 
of arching. The tomb only contained an 



accumulation if iroken mummies, thrown in 
from other torn 

The small tomb <!. •'>! was very differcnl to 
.in-, other. Between two vaulted chambers, 
near the surface, a stone sarcophagus had been 
placed; and brick recesses \. i'>. buill al the 
sides, to hold the funeral furniture. 

The line tomb G. -'> s contains the larg 
chandier that we found. A wide well-pil leads 
through a doorway loan arched chamber; and 
descending the steps in that, another doorway 
leads into a grand vaulted chamber over twenty 
feet long, nine feel wide, and fourteen and a 
half feet high. A slope of brickwork led down 
to the sarcophagus at the bottom. 

33. We now turn to the contents of the 
tombs of the XXXth Dynasty. The tomb of 
Zedher, <!. 50, was the most important, as 
being extensive and undisturbed. The wesl 
chamber was filled with (dean sand up to the 
spring of the arch, perhaps to prevent the 
crushing of the wall; as, when the sand was 
removed, the arch crushed down and collapsed. 
This sand entirely covered the figure-shaped 
sarcophagi in this chamber. The sarcophagus A 
contained only a plain mummy without orna- 
ment or amulets. 

The sarcophagus B was the most important, 
containing the mummy of Zedher. There was 
no inner wooden coffin, but only a wooden tray 
beneath the body. Upon the breast, outside of 
the wrappings, lay a set of glazed pottery 
amulets, the plan of which was noted by my 
wife, as shown on the left at the base of 
pi. Ixxviii. The order was evidently confused 
by some parts of the strings of figures having 
been turned over in laying them down; and 
they may be pretty safely restored to the 
order shown on the right hand. Within the 
wrappings there was another set of amulets, 
made of various stones, the actual positions of 
which I very fully noted, as on the left at top 
of pi. Ixxviii; here again some of the rows or 
strings had been twisted over in placing them, 



38 



ABYDOS I. 



so that the original order was probably as on 
the right. The materials are limestone (1), 
haematite (h), steatite (s), beryl (b), obsidian (o), 
faience (f), black limestone (b.l.), lazuli (z), 
brown limestone (br. 1.), porphyry (p), red 
glass (g), and carnelian (e). A few ball beads 
lay among these, the intended place of which 
could not be fixed. Beneath the head was the 
bronze hypocephalus, pi. lxxvi, and fig. 5 on 
pi. lxxix, which has no personal name ; the 
example with the name Zedher, born of the 
lady Uza au (?Uza Hern), pi. lxxvii, G. 50 c, 
and pi. lxxix, 3, was found in sarcophagus C. 
Outside of the sarcophagus at the head were 
two boxes of ushabtis, shown in the plan. One 
box contained 1 98, the other 196 figures; 
examples of these are the 1st, 3rd and 5th in 
fig. 1 pi. lxxix. Beneath the western box 
was a great quantity of much ruder ushabtis, 
such as the 2nd and 4th of the above group. 
The better ushabtis were of fairly hard, 
dark, greeny-blue glaze, inscribed in ink. The 
mixture of two such different qualities of 
figures at one time, shows that there was much 
variety of manufacture. The numbers recall 
those of Horuza at Hawara, 203 and 190 ; 
evidently 200 figures was the regulation number 
for each of the pair of deposits. 

The sarcophagus C contained a coarse wooden 
coffin of figure form, with gilt face. Within 
that was an inner wooden coffin, with a square 
plinth ; an engraved inscription in columns 
down the front was entirely eaten away by 
white ants ; it had a blue striped wig, and 
inlaid eves of glass ; and on the breast was a 
roll of the Book of the Dead much rotted. The 
mummy inside had gilt cartonnagc for the face, 
pectoral, collar, winged figure of Nut, and strip 
of inscription and 12 cross-bands on the lejrs. 
All of this was too much rotted to be moved. 
Beneath the head was the Largesl bronze hypo- 
cephalus, pi. lxxvii, G. 50 C, and lxxix. 3, with 
the name of Zedher. One splint hone of the 
mummy had been broken during life. 



The sarcophagus D, of Nebta-ahyt, wife of 
Zedher, contained an outer wooden case, with 
inscriptions down the front on stucco, all 
destroyed by white ants. At the left side of 
it an Osiride wooden figure, gilt, and inscribed ; 
containing a bundle of fibres of papyrus (ap- 
parently a cheap substitute, for a document) 
wrapped in cloth. The inner coffin of wood 
had the wig painted blue, and the eyes inlaid 
with glass, which was entirely rotted and 
brittle; the coffin was eaten by white ants. 
On the mummy was a cartonnagc decoration, 
gilded ; on the face a head piece ; on the breast 
the deep collar, a pectoral, and the figure of 
Nut with outspread wings ; below that a bier, 
and the four genii ; and on the legs a strip of 
inscription naming " the Osirian Neb-ta-ahyt, 
maa-lcheru ; daughter of the prophet, the royal 
scribe Nefer-ra-ab, maa-lcheru ; born of Ta-du- 
mehit (?)." This gilt cartonnage had no support 
from the cloth, with which it had been backed, 
as that had entirely gone to poAvder ; it merely 
consisted of thin gold leaf, and a film of stucco. 
The gold leaf gave some slight tenacity to it ; 
and by carefully shifting a portion at a time 
on to a slip of card, it was lifted off the 
mummy. Then it was transferred to a sheet 
of card covered with paraffin wax, and melted 
into the wax with a hot iron. In this way 
nearly the whole is now preserved unalterable, 
and as strong as new work. Beneath the head 
of the mummy was the small hypocephalus, 
lxxvii, G. 50 i), and lxxix, 4 ; and on this Avas 
a pile of small amulets of stone, like those of 
Zedher, but of poorer work. 

We noAv turn to the Avest chamber. This 
Avas evenly filled Avith sand, entirely covering 
the stone figure -shaped sarcophagi. Lying 
upon the sand in the axis of the chamber, 
above the sarcophagi, were two painted canopic 
boxes, 13 inches square, 22 inches high. The 
lids lay loose, with a hawk figure on the top, 
painted, with gilt lace. In one box were 
mummified viscera in wrappings. By the body 



was a mummified hawk in wrappings, bul 
headless : also an < Isiride figure, on a block 
base 20 x 7 inches, painted on top and sides. 
A clean vertebra, a finger bone, and two bits of 
a tibia, lay loose on the sand by the funereal 
furniture. Throughoul the sand filling many 
ushabtis were found lying apart, of which 
examples are given on pi. Ixxix, 2. These are 
brightly glazed, of a brilliant light blue; some 
with purple wigs; and others larger, with 
purple wigs and inlaid purple inscription for 
the priest of Hathor and Uazit, Peduasar son of 
Zedher. It is thus well settled that this style, 
which is well known in late times, immediatelj 



NIK CEMETERY G 

here 



39 



m pi. k\\ The style of the head is 
coarse and poor. The body was covered with 
cartonnage, like thai of II >ruza. 

The sarcophagus G was thai of Peduasai 
the ushabtis were for him, and there is no other 
unnamed burial in the tomb. Bui the sarco- 
phagus, though of the fine style of thai of 
Horuza, was left quite plain. The lid was 
tilted over 20 toward F : the inside was partly 
filled with sand, and three of the ushabtis lay 
upon the sand. At the neck of the mummy 
u 'as a bunch of amulets; some threaded in 
order, as a a sceptre, I hearts, scarab, double 
feather, 2 eyes, frog, eye, scarab, eye, Bonis 



followed on the very degraded style found in seated, and sam; some also loose, as scarabs, 
ushabtis of Zedher. The ushabtis were mixed double leather, aper, heart, eyes, and girdle tie. 



throughout the sand around the three burials . 
three were in the sand within the sarcophagus 
G, the lid of which was tilted ; but more than 
half lay in one group north of that. The total 
numbers were, plain 266, purple heads 83, 
inscribed 3(> ; the total of 385 seems to have 
been originally 400, like the deposits already 
noticed. 



A large heart scarab lay in the pelvis. 

All of these sarcophagi are taken to the Cairn 
Museum. 

34. The other large tombs need but little 
notice, as nothing was found intact in them. 
The tomb of Ilapi men was different to any 
other (see pi. lxxx, G. 61), as the sarcophagus 
was put in between two other tomb chambers, 



The sarcophagus E was that of Horuza, son and had two brick hollows, A, B, at the sides of 

of Zedher and Nebta-ahyt. The figure-shaped it for the funereal furniture. In A was a box 

lid is shewn in pi. Ixxix, 7; the inscription in of ushabtis, poorer than those of Pedu-asar, and 

pi. Ixxv. [The lithograph should be corrected ; evidently later examples of the same family; 
col. i, 4 up, neb per without a blur; col. iii, ! 30 were plain small figures, 2 were larger, and 

5 up, no blur between ma a ; col. iv, 7 up, add one was inscribed in a line down the front, for 

£ before a.] There was no inner coffin ; and the 1 lap-men. Over the ushabti box were two 

cartonnage on the body was coloured, and not Osiride figures and a hawk of w 1. In I) 



gilt except on the face. On the breast was the 
deep collar, the scarab and wings, the winged 
Nut, the bier with Isis, Nebhat, and four genii, 
the leg cover with red and white bands and 
garland pattern, all of it too much rotted to be 
moved. On the neck were three heart amulets 



was a canopic box, very carefully painted with 
much detail, containing two long round packets 
of salt; and a figure of Nebhat. All of this 
woodwork was destroyed by white ants. Within 
the square stone sarcophagus was an inner stone 
sarcophagus of the figure form. The face was 



and an uza eye; on the body a red jasper girdle of rather debased work, but carefully coloured 



tie, a two-finger amulet, and a large heart 
scarab on the right side in the body. 

The sarcophagus F was that of Pedu-en-ast, 
son of Zedher and Nebta-ahyt. The lid is 
painted with red hieroglyphics in outline, given 



in the eye.- : and down the front was a collar, 
engraved and painted, and a line of inscription, 
see pi. Ixxv. J>oth of the sarcophagi had been 
broken through at the side; and the mummy 
was torn to pieces over the breast, by ancient 



40 



AUYDOS 1. 



plunderers in search of amulets. Torn from the 
breast was the pectoral, and ou the feet was the 
foot case, showu in pi. lxxix, 9. These are well 
made and finely painted. Below the mummy, 
about the middle, was the bead fringe, figure 8 ; 
probably displaced from the neck. And at the 
side of the feet was a small mummified dog (?), 
carefully swathed in wrappings. 

The great tomb G 58, pi. lxxx, had been 
utterly plundered, and partly filled with broken 
coffins and rubbish. The original sarcophagus 
was found in place, and most of the pieces of 
the lid. It was figure-shaped, larger than any 
other such sarcophagi, and of a fine hard 
crystalline limestone. The inscription, as far 
as it could be recovered, gives the name of 
Nefert-iut, a chantress of Khent amentit, and is 
copied in pi. lxxxv. Two fragments which 
cannot be put in place, are shown at the side. 

In the great court G. 57 a lid of a sarco- 
phagus was found, broken in two, and bearing 
an inscription in red paint. This is photo- 



graphed on pi. lxxix, 6, and has been copied in 
facsimile but is not yet published. 

Later than all these a tomb of the type of 
G. 50 had been stripped of its chambers ; and on 
the floor of the open court which was left, rows 
of mummies were laid, side by side. On some 
of these were networks of blue tube beads, of 
the poorest kind ; and the scarab and wings, 
and four genii, of dark blue rough glaze. By 
these were pieces of box coffins, made of wood 
painted red, with green inscriptions, rude and 
poor ; and the latest canopic boxes of rough 
wood, either left plain, or with very coarse 
figures of the genii painted in red. These 
boxes instead of containing the mummified 
viscera only had linen packets of broken 
potsherds in them. On the floor amid the 
mummies were hundreds of brown pottery 
ushabtis, very roughly made, and coloured red, 
black, or blue. These seem to be the very 
latest stage of the style of burial which began 
in the XXVIth Dynasty. 



II 



CHAPTEB \. 

THE INSCRIPTIONS. 
Bi A. B. Wbiqall. 



35. The inscriptions discovered this year at 
Abydos are very varied in fcheir nature and 
date, and represent many of the importanl 
periods from the Vlth to the XXXth Dynasty. 
The majority were found in the Temple of 
1 >siris, but the late sarcophagi and funeral 
furniture were taken from the Ptolemaic ceme- 
tery, known as " Gr," to the south-west of the 
Osiris enclosure. Although not of extreme 
importance, these inscriptions add a number of 
new names to the aristocracy of Ancient Egypt, 
and repeat with no little interest those of many 
of its kings. That this material has been placed 
in the hands of the present writer is due to the 
kindness of Prof. Petrie; and help has been 
most generously given in the clearing up of 
some difficult points by Mr. Percy Newberry, 
Mr. Herbert Thompson, and Mr. Alan Gardiner. 
Especial thanks must be rendered to Mr. 
Thompson for permitting free use to be made 
of his notes upon the subject of the hypocephali. 

PI. liv, 1. Three fragments of limestone false 
doors belonging to a Prince (or Princes) of 
Abydos whose name is unfortunately lost. His 
titles are erpd ha Hereditary Prince, smer udti 
Chiefly Companion, hheri heb Lector, heri dep 
ad ne Abdu Prince of Abydos, mer neter /«•/• 
Superintendent of the Temple. He is also 
connected with the pi r net Anher Temple of 
Anhur. His mother was the seten kheJeer Royal 
Handmaid, Ad. The inscription speaks of him 
in the usual laudatory terms, among which we 
may notice that he was ur em dant-f great in 
his office, ser em sdh-f lordly in his nobility, 



Pe. 



ser i in hdt .... chief among the prii 

and . • m Pe "'<<" nn Dep greal in 

rable in Dep — these being the two sacred 
shrines of the city of Buto (Brugsch, Aegypt, 
p. 239). ( >siris Temple. Dyn. VI. 

2. Upon this plate will also be noticed two 
limestone fragments, inscribed with the cartouche 
ul' Merenra. In tin' first In: is called .... seU n 
bdti Mer-ne-Rd de dnlch ded usr dnlch zetta 
'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Merenra, 
endowed with life, stability, and power, living 
for ever' ; and in the second he holds the usual 
title ' The double Horus of Cold.' Osiris Temple. 
Dynasty VI. 

PI. lvi. Portions of some hexagonal limestone 
columns, placed in position in the plate in order 
to show the original style of construction. The 
largest fragment reads .... seten bdti Ed-nub- 
hheper sc Bd Antef Anher neb Theni meri il<- 
dnlch ilnt list .... 'The King of Upper ami 
Lower Egypt, Ra-nub-kheper, son of the Sim, 
Antef [the Fifth,] beloved of Anhur Lord of 
Theni, endowed with life, stability, and power 
. . . .' The other fragments give the usual 
formulae, such as se Ed ne lehat-f mer-f 'Son 
of the Sun, the beloved of his body ' ; and de 
,;„/•/, ded usr neb senb neb md lid 'endowed 
with all life, stability, power, and all health, 
sun-like ' Osiris Temple. Dyn. XL 

l'l. lvii. Two fragments of a limestone stele 
of Prince Nekht, the son of Antef the Fifth. 
It is of rough workmanship, and there are 
many obvious errors in the hieroglyphs. In 
the upper portion we have the ligure of the 



42 



ABYUOS I. 



owner, who is called seten se fieri pezetu Nefcht 
'The Royal Son, Commander of the Archers, 
Xekht,' and of his father, the neter nefer 'good 
sod,' i.e. the King. The first line of the 
horizontal inscription repeats the titles of Xekht; 
and an interesting point to be observed here 
occurs in the fragment of the first portion, 
where the title s*-ten se ne heq An[tef] 'The 
royal son of the heq-iprmce Antef appears. 
The second line speaks of the fiet Antef em 
Abdu 'Temple of Antef in Abydos,' some 
remains of which were excavated this year ; 
and the third repeats the titles. Then follows 
an inscription in five lines of a religious charac- 
ter ; and in the ninth line the titles again 
appear, followed by an invocation to the 
[priests,] waft-priests, children, and lectors, that 
they may pray for funeral offerings, all good 
and pure things, an entrance into the under- 
world, and a coining forth by day, for the 
deceased. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XL 

36. PL lviii. A large limestone lintel [?] 
inscribed with the cartouches Rd-fcheper-ka and 
Sen-usrt, i.e. Usertesen I. Along the face of 
the stone are three faint lines of a later — ■ 
probably Xlllth Dynasty — inscription, the 
cartouche in each case being erased. The first 

reads ditkh neter nefer neb dri fchet se Rd 

JJp-uaut res meri de anhh ded usr end Ra zetta. 
' The living One, the Good God, Creator of 

Things, Son of the Sun, , beloved of 

Anubis of the South, endowed with life, 
stability, and power, Sun-like for ever.' The 

second reads anfch //< r Ra 

fehent Amentet meri de 'The living 

Horus, , Ra , beloved of 

[Osiris] Khent-Amenti, endowed [with Life, 
stability, etc.';] and the third anfch neter 

nefer neb taui ltd Up-uaut meh meri 

de anfch etc. 'The Living One, the Good God, 

Lord of the Two hands, Lla , beloved 

of Anubis of the North, endowed with life' etc. 
as before. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XII. and 
XI II. 



PI. lix, 1. Fragment of an inscribed granite 
block of Sebek-hotep III. The inscription 
above the figure reads neter nefer neb dri fchet 
Rd-khd-nefer se Rd mer-f Sebefc-hetep d* anfch 
zetta 'The Good God, the Lord, Creator of 
Things, Ra-kha-nefer, Son of the Sun, his 
Beloved, Sebek-hotep, endowed with life for 
ever.' The Horus-name Anhh-db appears. 
Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIII. 

2. A large, roughly-made, altar of offerings, 
inscribed with the name of a person Ad-dnefchen- 
dd, born of the lady Mes-nefcht\T\-dd. Cemetery 
G. Dyn. XI. 

3. Two fragments of a limestone stele with 
perpendicular lines of inscription, giving seten 
de hetep formulae to Ptah-nefer-her and to 
Hathor Lady of the House of Eternity, for the 
fcas of the udrtu ne fchaut heqt Sebefc-hetep mud 
fcheru 'Secretary at the Royal Table, Sebek- 
hotep, true-voiced ' ; and his wife, the seten 
fcheher Nefert-uben 'Royal Handmaid Nefert- 
uben.' It should be mentioned here that the 
female relatives of persons having the title 
udrtu ne fchaut heqt very often hold the position 
of seten fcheher; and we may perhaps see a 
direct conformity in the two titles, the one 
being the male attendant upon the king, and 
the other the female attendant upon the royal 
harem. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XIII. 

PL lx. 1. A limestone fragment, giving a 
seten de hetep formula to Usdr neb Dedu niter 

ad neb anfch heq zetta. 'Osiris, Lord 

of Dedu, the Great God, Lord of Life, 

Prince of Eternity,' that he may grant per- 
fch ('/'/(-offerings etc. for the fca of a certain 
erpd /n't Hereditary Prince, whose name i< un- 
fortunately missing. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XII. 

2. An inscription in four perpendicular lines, 
from the lap of a limestone kneeling figure of a 
man. It- reads (1) Seten de hetep Usdr neb 
Abdu de-f fchet neb nefer udb per (2) her fchaut 
ne I sdr em fchert her net ra neb ne fca ne 

(3) y heri dep aa ne T nebu 

tdhu bdti smer udti (4) erpdt Abdu mer sdhu 



Till: INSCRIPTIONS. 



13 



-if i ™™^ -^izn: Jji^ 



sign 



is an 
riie name 



udn tern em aha [?] neb net s< tt u pi r. 'The King 
gives an offering to (Osiris Lord of Abydos. 
May he -rant all good and pure things, and a 
coming forth (2) upon the altar of I Isiris al all 

times of the day. for the lea of (3) the , 

Prince of all the Royal Sealer, 

Chiefly Companion, (I) Heriditary Prince of 
Abydos, Superintendent of the Treasury, 
banishing the evil-doer at all times[?] from 
the Palace.' The lasl words of the inscription 
are given hypothetically, being founded on 
the supposition that the hieroglyphs read 

1 In 

at the beginning of the second line 

original error: it should be ?*. 

does not appear on the statue. Osiris Temple 
Dyn. XII. 

3. Portion of a limestone stele, giving the 
inscription [//<]'/• sdhv. Ameny mad lehern dri ne 
Set-Pepy madt leheru 'The Superintendent of 
the Treasury, Ameny, deceased ; born of Set- 
Pepy, true-voiced.' In the second line Ameny 
is called mer per 'Superintendent of the 
Palace'; and two other persons are mentioned, 
the one sesh senb ' the scribe Senb,' and the 
other iwbt per Set-Hether aril ne A-ten [?] 'The 
lady of the house, Set-Hathor, born of A-ten.' 
Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XIII. 

4. Part of a limestone stele, upon which two 
lines of figures still remain. In the upper line, 
reading from left to right, these figures repre- 
sent (i) sets seten Icheher Nub-em-tehhi 'Her 
daughter, the Royal Handmaid, Nub-em-tekhi '; 
(ii) sen-f ur res ///('/[?] sesh Benutet-se 'His 
brother, the Great One of the Southern Tens, [?] 
the scribe, Renutet-se'; (iii) set-s seten Icheher 
Amen-set 'Her daughter, the Royal Handmaid, 
Amen-set'; (iv) sen-f [ne~\ m\d-\_f%r\ resmet[?~\ 
Merit- ef 'The brother of his mother, the Great 
One of the Southern Tens [?] Meritef; and 
(v) shems Pen-hhenya 'The attendant, Pen- 
khenya.' In the lower line the figures are 
(i) sen-f sab er Nehhent Sebeh-hetep mes ne 



Amen-set i His brother, the Judge belonging to 
the city of Nekhent, Sebek-hotep '; (ii) sets 
si ten kheh r \ ub lehd-t ' Her daughtt r, the 
Royal Handmaid, Nub-kha-es'; (iii) sen-fudtu 
ehaut heq Sebele-hetep 'His brother, the 
Secretary at the Royal Table, Sebek-hotep'; 
(iv) her sesheta ne Het-her nebt Innu Udh mes 
ne nebt per De-nub-merd 'The master of the 
mysteries of Hathor Lady of Heliopolis, Hah : 
born of the lady of the house, De-nub-mera.' 
the hieroglyphs are so roughly cul thai two of 
the above titles can only be translated hypo- 
thetically: I (ii) The original gives ifj^ D 1 , 
which seems to be a miswriting for ^*18, 
shortly written ■^=, n 1 ur res met; and 1 (iv) 
The original j |1 i may perhaps be intended 
for the same title ur res met. Osiris Temple. 
Dyn. XIII. 

•"). Portion of an inscription from a broken 
limestone statuette, giving a seten de hetep 
formula for the lea of the Erpd ha sdhu bdti 

mer per Sndd-db mad kheru * Hereditary 

Prince, Royal Sealer, Superintendent of the 
Palace .... Snaa-ab, true- voiced.' By the 
coincidence of the names it would seem that 
this noble lived during the reign of Snaa-ab, 
a king of the XHIth Dynasty, only known 
from a tablet found at Abydos. Osiris Tern pie. 
Dyn. XIII. 

37. PI. Ixii. Limestone, coloured reliefs, 
giving the usual titles of Amenhotep I [Zeser- 
lea-Ba], and his father Aahmes I. Osiris 
Temple. Dyn. XVIII. 

PL lxiii. Similar reliefs of king Amenhotep, 
which call for no special comment. Osiris 
Temple. Dyn. XVIII. 

PL lxiv. In the middle of this plate is to be 
seen the great lintel of Tahutimes the Second 
and Third. In the three horizontal lines the 
inscriptions commence from the central ■¥•, and 
read to left and right. The left hand side is as 
follows: (1) Anhh Her lea em Uast (2) Seten 
bdti ifli taui Ed-men-hheper md Bd (3) se Bd 



41 



A1SYD0S I. 



ne khat-f Tahut-mes-nefer-kheperu zetta (1) 'The 
living Horus, Bull in Thebes, (2) King of Upper 
and Lower Egypt, Lord of the two Lands, 
Ra-men-kheper, (3) Son of the Sun, of his 
body, Tahutimes-nefer-kheperu (the Third), 
like the Sun for ever.' The right hand 
side gives the cartouches Bd-ad-kheper-ne 
and Tahut - mes - nefer - khdu (the Second), 
with similar titles. Osiris Temple. Dyn. 
XVIII. 

PI. Ixv. 9, 10. Standing figures of a man and 
woman, roughly worked in grey granite, having 
two vertical lines of hieroglyphs upon the front 
and back. The frontal inscriptions read : neter 
hen dep ne Usdr Un-nefer mud kheru; and sent-f 
nebf per-f qemdt ne Ast Thiy 'The High Priest 
of Osiris, Un-nefer, true-voiced ; his sister, the 
lady of his house, the Singer of Isis, Thiy.' 
That upon the back reads: Se-hez Usdr neter 
hen dep ne Usdr Un-nefer mad kheru; nebt per-f 
qemdt Usdr Thiy madt kheru zed nes Nefert-dri 
' The glorified Osirian High Priest of Osiris, Un- 
nefer, true-voiced ; the lady of his house, the 
Singer of Osiris, Thiy, true-voiced, also named 
[lit. said of her] Nefertari.' A few notes with 
regard to the life of this famous High Priest 
are given in connection with two other of his 
inscriptions upon pi. lxvii. Osiris Temenos. 
Dyn. XIX. 

PI. lxvi. 1. Fragment of a small limestone 
stele, upon which a man is figured, holding in 
his hand a kind of brazier. Above his head is 

inscribed per hen-f . . . u-nefer Amen - 

neb uhem dnkh ' . . . of the palace of His 

Majesty [in] the city of u-nefer; 

Amen-neb, renewing Life.' Osiris Temenos. 
Dyn. XVIII. 

2. Portion of a limestone stele of a man and 
his sister. The name of the former is destroyed, 
but that of the latter is Bakt-mut. Osiris 
Temenos. Dyn. XIX. 

3. Two fragments of a limestone statuette 

of a person named yd, giving the 

interesting invocation dan nt ka-Je Usdr 'Adora- 



tions to thy ka, Osiris.' Osiris Temenos. 
Dyn. XIX. 

4. Two fragments of the inscription upon a 
small basalt statuette of Miu-mes, the High 
Priest of Anhur. Min-mes, who is known from 
various other monuments (Garstang, El Arabah, 
pp. 11, 35; Proa, ttoc. Bib. Arch. vol. xxiii, 
p. 250 ; idem p. 13), lived in the reign of 
Rameses II, and was the step-brother of the 
High Priest of Osiris, Un-nefer, who is men- 
tioned in this chapter. Early in life he held 
the positions of royal scribe, and priest of Shu 
and of Anhur: his father Herd being High 
Priest of the latter deity. He was later elevated 
by Rameses to the position of ami as Shu 
Tefnut ' Official of the Temple of Shu and 
Tefnut ; and on his father's death became High 
Priest of Anhur. A statuette calls him kheri 
heh hcri dep ne neb taui ' Chief Lector to the 
King.' The Lectors seem to have corresponded 
in a manner to the Magi of Persia ; and the 
position of Chief Lector, although at this 
period much deteriorated, was in the Old 
Kingdom one of the highest in the land. 
Dyn. XIX. 

5. Part of a limestone stele, showing a seated 
male figure holding a lotus flower. At the to]) 
is a short inscription reading . . . . ne ka ne 
dkhu dker lid neb pet selen neteru Pa-dsi '. . . . 
for the ka of the perfect glory of Ra, Lord of 
Heaven, King of the Gods : Pa-asi.' A some- 
what similar stele of this person, whereon his 

\\ 



name is written /^.lll'rv has just been 

published by M. Capart in his ' Iiecueil de 
Monuments Egyptiens, 1902.' He is there 

called the <s^ (£ O jj ' glory of Ra,' Pro- 
fessor Maspero has several times called atten- 
tion to the formula ne ka ne dkhu dker »<■ 
lid, and lie remarks that this apparent identi- 
fication of the deceased with Ka occurs in a few 
inscriptions of the XlXth and XXth Dynastic.-, 
but at no other period. There is a Pa-asi 
known on a papyrus at Turin, who held the 



TIIK INSCRIPTIONS. 



u. 



position of Commander of the Troops, and M. 
Capart thinks thai an identification may be 
possible. < Isiris Temple. Dyn. XIX. 

6. Portion of a limestone stele inscribed An 
»i zat m I Keni-Ai, ' Bora of 
the standard-bearer of Amen. Keni-Amen, true- 
voiced.' The stele evidently contained originally 
the figure of the son of Keni-Amen as well. 
Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIX. 

7. Limestone stele upon which five persons 
arc depicted seated before a table of offerings. 
Above them there are the remains of a group of 
gods. At the bottom of the stele two lines of 
hieroglyphs give a seten de hetep formula to 
Usdr Khent Amenta neb Ta-zeser ' Osiris Khent- 
amenti, Lord of the Necropolis,' that he may 
grant per kherv, offerings for the ka of the 
Seten uhem dep ne neb taui senna medehi ddebui 
KIu'iij 'Chief Royal Herald of the Lord of the 
Two Lands, reporting the countries' affairs: 
Khay.' Elsewhere we see that his father was 

named rn'^n ^j /I<ai or m'vx U <§\ i§\ Hada, 

and bore the titles sab 'Judge,' and her pezetit 
ne neter nefer 'Commander of the King's 
archers.' His sister was the nebt per Tm-d-mer 
' lady of the house, Imamer '; and his mother 
the qemdt ne Amen nebt per Nub-em-U kh 'Singer 
of Amen, the Lady of the house, Nub-cm-tekh." 
Another personage holds the title mer shenuti 
' Superintendent of the Granary,' but his name 
and relationship is lost. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. 
XIX. 

PI. lxvii, 1. Limestone statue with seven 
horizontal lines of hieroglyphs, each line begin- 
ning with a seten de hetep formula. The first 
is to the gods Ra-Harmakhis and Turn, that 
they may grant nefu 'breezes' to the lea of the 
deceased; the second to Usdr khent enti er 
Amentet ' Osiris, the Chief who is [existent] in 
the Underworld,' that he may grant the usual 
funeral offerings; the third to Usdr Un-nefer 
neb ta-zeser 'Osiris Lnnefer, Lord of the Necro- 
polis,' without a prayer. The fourth line is to 



.1///"' [e?i] Bed ' Anubis, who is the 

of Ded' (the original ^a, ' Tfl ls a sculptor's 

error l'oi- im ^\ , a com i title of Anubis), 

thai lie may gran! hesn em bah seten ' Favour in 
the presence of the King 1 for the ha. The fifth 
line to Anpnt neb rekh 1 Anubis, Lord of knowledge,' 

praying for ha nefer shems ne ka-f 'a g W. 

tomb, and a following for his ha '; the sixth to 
Osiris, that he may grant akhtt em pet u&r em ta 
hherii em set madt 'Glory in heaven, power 
on earth, and a trueness of voice in the Place ol 
Justice' [the r ^~i is a miswriting for fh =1 
undoubtedly]; and the seventh to Usdr neb 
ta-zeser Anpu ami em id 'Osiris Lord of the 
Necropolis, and Anubis dwelling in embalmment, 
that they may grant sh( S ker'a following 
of the god Seker' for the ha. The uame and 
titles of the owner appear at the end of each 
line, and in other parts of the statue, and read, 
when written in full, Mer lean emt hei lid-usr- 
mad-setep-ne-Rd Amen em per Ptah-em-uah 
mad hheru 'Superintendent of the Cattle in 
the Temple of Ramessu II, in the Amen Temple, 
Ptah-em-uah, true-voiced. This building, which 
is still to be seen at Abydos, is known as the 
Rameses Temple, and stands near to the great 
Temple of Sety. In one place Ptah-em-uah is 
called seten sesh hetep neter ne neterv. nebu ' the 
royal scribe of the divine otlerinu's of all the 
gods.' The cartouches of Ramessu II are in- 
scribed upon the sides of the statue. < Isiris 
Temenos. Dyn. XIX. 

2. Wooden fragment with an inscription, 
giving a prayer for the welfare of an untitled 
person named Lay. Cemetery G. Dyn. XIX. 

,",. Part of a lime-tone stele, upon which two 
figures are represented in attitudes of worship. 
Above them is a much damaged inscription, 
reading, as far as can now be seen, seten sesh ne 

a I W-niadm mad Icheru dri ne y 

'The Royal Scribe of 1'hara »h, I'rmaau, true- 
voiced, born of J- s i ris Temple. 

Dyn. XIX. 



46 



ABYDOS I. 



38. PI. lxvii. 4. Two fragments from small 
basalt statuettes of Un-nefer, High Priest of 
< >siris in the reign of Rameses II. The first 
inscription reads (I) neter hen dep ne Usdr 
Un-nefer mad kheru (2) sew. het Sekeri Un-nefer 
mm) Icheru 'The High Priest of Osiris, Un-nefer, 
true-voiced; the sem -priest of the Temple of 
Seker, Un-nefer, true-voiced.' The I ¥\ si m- 
priesthood is very little understood, but it 
was evidently of a mystical character. The 
si //(-priest officiated at the most solemn cere- 
monies, such, for instance, as the ' opening of 
the mouth ' of a mummy, where he performed 
the chief part ; and at many other of the more 
occult services he took a leading place. The 
Temple, or Sanctuary, of Seker was that 



portion of the Temple of Sety known in 
Mariette's Abydos as Salle T. In the inscrip- 
tions upon the temple walls we find it con- 
stantly mentioned, being sometimes written 

=5. Once the 



and sometimes 



i i 






following invocation occurs r| • 

^ — °t1i/ V ^' ^"" 1| \ll ^" n "' ' 'i>-i"'f'->' her db het 
Seker de-f dtihh usr ne Ra-men-maat 'May 
•Jsiris-Unnefer within the Sanctuary of Seker 
grant life and power to Ra-men-maat [Sety I].' 
The second fragment gives an extremely inte- 
resting title. It appears to read mer zazanut ne. 
mad Icheru Un-nefer mad Icheru 'Superintendent 
of the judicial court of the true- voiced, Un-nefer, 
true-voiced.' The word [ °, I | °, or I J*l 

"iizniuil signifies a court or office, usually of a 
judicial character ; and Unncfer's title ' Super- 
intendent of the court of the True of Voice 
[mad Tcheru, i.e. the dead] ' seems to be to some 
extent the religious equivalent of the judicial 
title 'Superintendent of the royal zazanut 
court of the deliberating upon all words' (vide 
Mai;.. Mast, 10!); Erman, Life In. A. /•:., 138). 
I ►siris Temple. Dyn. XIX. 

As we have thus had three inscriptions of this 
Unnefer, who \v;is perhaps the most importanl 



of the inhabitants of Abydos of all ages, it may 
be as well to mention a few points with regard 
to his life and family. Unnefer was born pro- 
bably in the reign of Sety I, as he appears to 
have been an elderly man in the reign of 
Kamessu II. He began his sacerdotal career as 
a priest of Osiris, in which position he appears 
on the shrine found this year by the Egyptian 
Research Account, near the Sety Temple. Later 
he became, as we have seen, the sem-priest of 
the Sanctuary of Seker in that building ; and 
also received the position, which we have just 
discussed, in connection with the Mad Kheru. 
He finally became High Priest of Osiris at 
Abydos, and caused himself to be remembered 
by filling the temple with statues, statuettes, 
and steles, inscribed with his name and titles. 
With regard to his father there was evidently 
an unpleasant mystery. On nearly all his later 
monuments when his parentage is given he is 
said to be the son of the High Priest of Osiris, 
Meri, and of his wife the Singer of Osiris, 
Ma-aa-nuy. But on one or two statues his 
father is said to be the High Priest of Osiris 
Yu-yu, and on the above mentioned shrine the 
name Meri is, in each of the three places where 
it occurs, erased, and the name Yu-yu sub- 
stituted. Unnefer married the lady Thiy whose 
second name was Nefert-ari ; and by her he had 
several children, whose names are given [?] on a 
monument found in his tomb at Abydos, and 
not yet published. His two step-brothers are 
to be noticed : the one is Pa-ra-hetep the Vizir, 
and the other Min-mes, the High Priest of 
Anhur, mentioned on pi. lxvi. They were the 
sons of Ma-aa-nuy by Hera, High Priest of 
Anhur, the son of Un-nefer, High Priest of 
Amen. The base of a statuette of this Hera 
was found this year at Abydos, hut was stolen 
almost immediately by some loafers from the 
village. A portion of the extensive genealogy 
of Unnefer may be given here, as it illus- 
trates also the family positions of Min-mes and 
Hera. 



THE [NSCRIPTIONS. 



47 



Min-mes 
High Priesl of [sis and Min. 

Pa-Keny = Qtaa . . 

Superintendent of 
the Granaries. 



I 



[Jn-nefer = Asl 

Eligh Priesl of Amen. 



Maa-rema 

1 1 igh Priesl of [sis and Min. 



. . y Meri or Y"u-yu = Ma-aa-nuy 

II igh Priesl of 

< >-iris. 



Tlii\ = Un-nefer 



also oamed 
Nefertari. 



High Priesl 
of < >siris. 



Pa-ra-hetep 
< rrand Vizir. 



Hera 

High Priesl 

of Anhur. 



A 



Mill- tins = Gemat-klia 
High Priesl 

of Anlnir. 

A 



5. Upon this plate there still remain two 
inscriptions to be discussed. They are cut 
upon natural limestone rocks lying in the 
desert, between the village of El Arahah and 
the site of the Royal Tombs. The longer reads 
Neter hen 1\ ne Amen-Rd seten neteru mer res 
nut ma. hedes Menthu-em-hdt mad Icheru. 'The 
4th Priest of Amen-Ra, King of the Gods, 
Superintendent of Thebes in its entirety, Mentu- 
emhat, true-voiced.' The other reads Neter hen 
71" ne Amen-Rd, seten neteru mer \_res nut] 
Mentha-em-hdt 'The 4th Priest of Amen-Ra, 
King of the Gods, Superintendent [of Thebes] 
Mentuemhat.' It would seem that Alentuemhat 
came to Abydos to inspect the royal tombs, 
and had his name roughly inscribed upon one 
of the rocks near by : the inscription being 
re-written more neatly, and at greater length, 
with the addition of mad Icheru also, after his 
death. Mentuemhat, it will be remembered, 
avus the <2i*eat vizir at the time of the 
Assyrian invasions of Egypt. Besides the 
above titles he held the offices of Fa-Prince 
of Thebes, Great Prince [JJ] of the Temple, 
Instructor of the Priests, Superintendent of 
the Priests of Mentu, Eeq- Prince of the 



Desert 



[I 



^ IIIJ 



IWI 

etc. 



Superintendent of the Frontier 
etc. He was the son of Nes- 



Ptah, governor of Thebes, hut was probably 
(if Cypriote origin, as a wonderfully carved 
portrait-head — (bund by Miss Benson and Miss 
Gourlav in the Temple of Mill inscribed with 
his titles, seems to show (see Newberry in Temple 
<;/' Muf, p. 352). Of him Miss Gourlav writes 
"He probably helped Taharqa [in whose reign 
he lived] to repel the first Assyrian invasion; 
nevertheless, after the conquest of Upper Egypt 
and the sack of Thebes by Assurbanipal, he 
still retained his position as governor of the 
Thebaic!. . . . When the withdrawal of the 
Assyrian invaders left him free to exercise 
his governorship, he devoted himself to the 
restoration of the broken and pillaged temples, 
and of the worship and festivals of the 
gods .... These pious labours . . . were 
wholly swept away in the second invasion of 
Assurbanipal and the conserpuent ruin of the 
city. No record has yet been found to show 
whether after that catastrophe he still retained 
his governorship and painfully attempted a 
second restoration of the desecrated shrines, or 
whether his career then came to an end with 
that of the dynasty he served." Our inscription, 
however, which seems to show that he was 
powerful to the end of his lite, suggests that 
he did attempt a second restoration ; and 
indeed the strength portrayed in his face is 



48 



ABYDOS I. 



a guarantee of his ability to undertake such a 
task, however painful it was. Dyn. XXYI. 

39. l'l. lxix. 1. Limestone altar of offerings, 
around the edge of which run seten de hetep 
formulae to 'Osiris, Chief of the Underworld, 
Great Lord of Abydos,' and to 'Osiris, Lord of 
Dedu, Great Lord of Abydos,' for the lea of the 
r sahutiii Her dri ne Set-Het-her 'Super- 
intendent of the Treasuries, Hor, born of Set- 
Hathor.' Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XXVI. 

2. Limestone altar of offerings, around which 
is inscribed twice the following. Ankji Her 
smen madt sma uti Net se sepd taui Her nub 
,i teru st tep seten bdti Bd-udh-db se Ed Aahmes- 
net-se Usdr hhent Amentet neter ad neb Abdu 
meri dednlch Ret md zetta. 'The Living Horus, 
establishing Truth, Lord of the Vulture and 
the Uraeus, Son of Neith, the Vigour of the 
two Lands, the Golden Horus, Chosen of the 
Gods, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
Ra-uah-ab, Son of the Sun Ahmes-net-se, 
beloved of Osiris Lord of the Underworld, the 
Great God, Lord of Abydos, endowed with 
Life, like the Sun for ever.' Osiris Temenos. 
Dyn. XXVI. 

l'l. Ixxi. Portions of a painted wooden coffin, 
inscribed with religious texts, too fragmentary 
to be translated with interest. The owner's 
name is Tahuti-mes, but his only title is 
'scribe.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XVIII— XX. 

PI. lxxii, 1. Painted wooden canopic box, 
inscribed down either side with seten de hetep 
formulae to Anubis, that he may grant aHn n 
pet kher ltd usr em la ... . 'glory in heaven 
under Pa, and power on earth . . . ,' and the 
usual funeral offerings of beer, bulls, geese, etc., 
to tin' ka of the owner, whose name, Merti-heru, 
appears in the centre. Cemetery G. About 
Dyn. XXVIII. 

2. The model coffin figured upon this plate 

belongs to the same personage, as also does a 

coffin represented upon the next plate. Upon 

the one side he is called the hesi-ka priest, and 

i ds [it kind of priesl |, and is said to be the 



son of the nebt per Nes-her ' Lady of the house, 
Nesher.' Upon the other side a curious inscrip- 
tion occurs, reading dep-fc db-k dnkh-k ami-/ 
'Thy head, thy heart, thy life are in it' [i.e. in 
the coffin]. The signs here transliterated db-k, 

are in the original L_~\ which might perhaps 
be rendei-ed ' thy first, or chiefest, thing.' But 
it seems more probable that the group is a 

mis-writing for y ' db-k ' thy heart." 

PI. lxxiii, 1. The coffin of Merti-heru gives 
us some more details, with regard to his family. 
He was the son of a person holding the same 
titles as himself, named Udh-db-Bd; and his 
mother, as stated above, was named Kes-her, 
and held the title dhyt ne Ichnd enti Amentet 
' Sistrum player of the Chief who is in the 
Underworld,' i.e. Osiris. Cemetery G. About 
Dyn. XXVIII. 

40. PL lxxiii, 2. The coffin of Tay-nckht 
has the following genealogical inscription: Usdr 
Tay-nelcht set ami as Zed-her mes ne nebt per 
Ta-kherd-ne-Min 'The Osirian Tay-nekht, 
daughter of the ami as priest Zedher, and of 
the lady of the house, Ta-kherd-ne-Min.' The 
text of these inscriptions is unimportant, and is 
so corrupt that it is unnecessary to translate it 
in full. Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX. 
, 3. The coffin of Heru-makheru speaks of him 
as Usdr Her-viad-kheru mad-kherii se Merit-hern 
mes ne nebt per MeMi-[db ^-ta-senekht 'The 
( )sirian Heru-makheru, deceased, son of Merit- 
heru, and of the Lady of the house Mehti-ab-ta- 
senekht.' There seems to be no doubt that the 

siuiis j should be read ^^ mehti-db — the 

° <=> d ^ o • 

common expression 'filling, or pleasing, the 
heart.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX. 

4. The box of Tasenmeht doubtless belonged 
to this same lady. Her name is here written 

bul this is an obvious error 






for 






o <= 



.\lehti-ab-la-senekht. 



< 'emetery G. I >yn. X XX. 

• r >. The inscription on the coffin of Mert-tcfnnl 



THE [NSOBIPTIONS. 



I:- 



reads Mert-tefnut maat kheru set if d hesi 

ka Zedher ' Mert-tefuut, deceased, daughter of 
the ami as and hesi ka -priest Zedher.' Ceme- 
tery G. Dyn. XXX. 

6. The gilt cartonnage of Neb-ta-ahit has 
inscribed upon it Usdr Neb-ta-dhy[t~\ maat kh( ru 
set neter hen seien sesh Nefer-db-Bd [?] mad- 
kheru, mes ne Td .... [?] 'The Osirian 
Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced, daughter of the priest 
and royal scribe Nefer-ab-Ra, true-voiced, and 
ofTa . . . .' Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX. 

PI. lxxv, 1. The inscription of Nefert-iut 
speaks of her as Usdr qemdt khent Amentet 
Nefert-iut .... ' The Osirian, Singer of Khent- 
amenti, Nefert-iut.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX. 

2. The sarcophagus of Hapi-men is inscribed 
with a seten de hetep formula to Usdr khent 
Amentet neter ad neb Abdu 'Osiris, Khent- 
Amenti, the Great God, Lord of Abvdos,' 
that he may grant the usual offerings for the ka 
of the neter hen III ne Mut nebt em Aben [?] 
neter hen Her Usdr Hapi-men mad kheru 'The 
3rd Priest of Mut Lady in Aben, Priest of 
Horus, the Osirian Hapi-men, true-voiced.' The 

town -jJ-a Ab or Aben is unknown. Cemetery 

G. Dyn. XXX. 

The two middle inscriptions are from the 
sarcophagi of the brothers Peduenast and 
Horuza. That of the former gives a prayer to 
Osiris on behalf of the neter hen Un sesh n< 
neter pen Her an mut-f Pe-de-ne-dst mad 
kheru se neter hen Het-her nebt Ant mert [?] Ed 
Zed-her mud kheru ant ne nebt per Neb-ta-dhyt 
maat kheru ' Priest of Un, Scribe of this God 
[i.e. the King], Horus Supporter of his Mother, 1 
Peduenast, true-voiced ; son of the Priest of 
Hathor Lady of Ant, the Eye of Ra, Zed-her, 
true-voiced ; born of the Lady of the House 
Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced.' 



1 For this title see Ceum, Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch. 1894, 
xvi, 131; Breasted, New Chapter in Life of Tahutmes 
III., p. 12 ; and Griffith in Deshasheh, p. 47. 



I. The lattei inscription gives a longer 
prayer to Osiris, for the neter hen Un sesh 
Per-ad du-f dpi [hetepu?] ne neter pen per neb 
i Ant Reruza mud kheru se neter hen 
Ret-her nebt Ant mert [?] Ed Zed-her mad 
kheru drit m per Neb-ta-dhyt maat kheru 

" I'ricM of I'u, Scribe of Pharaoh, counting [the 
offerings] of this god in every temple in Uazeti- 
Ant, Heruza, true-voiced ; son of the Priest "I 
Hathor Lady of Ant, the Eye of Horus, 
Zed-her, true-voiced; born of the Lady of the 
House, Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced.' In this in- 
scription there are a few points to be noticed. 

i\ ft An \\ 'www 

The sentence \\ x (I lo du-f dpi ne / 

pen seems to require an additional word, such 
as hetepu 'offerings,' to complete the sense. 
The words neter pen per neb are also 

I A/WW\ V / 

written ] ii n i towards the close ot the 
inscription, which seems to be erroneous. The 
f 1 "^ rQl C cr3 ' ' 1 neter l ieu Un sesh Per-ad, or 
iH^ffilTc? neter hen Un sesh ne neter pen 
as it is written upon the sarcophagus of Pedu- 
enast, may be translated as above ; but the fact 
that the god -^ Un is very rarely found 2 

/vww\ 

urges the necessity of another reading to the 
passage. Regarding un as the auxiliary verb, 
it might be rendered 'The Priest, being the 
Scribe of the King'; or again it has been 
suggested that the word should be read *||? 
un 'opening,' thus giving the sense 'the Priest, 
opening the writings of the King.' But the 
corruption of the whole text makes a close 
translation impossible. Cemetery G. Dyn. 

XXX. 

41. PL lxxvi. Three bronze hypocephali, 
decorated with the usual magical figures and 
inscriptions. The latter are hopelessly confused ; 



2 Un is mentioned in the leading hieroglyphieal dic- 
tionaries without references, and it is doubtful whether 
there is such a god. 

E 



50 



ABYDOS I. 



many of the groups of signs bearing but a faint 
resemblance, if any at all, to known words. 
Although there are some thirty specimens in the 
various museums, a comparison of these with 
the present ones does not help much in their 
decipherment ; and it would therefore be very 
undesirable to offer even a conditional trans- 
lation. Such an one, however, giving an idea of 
the style of the texts should be referred to in Dr. 
Budge's Egyptian Magic, page 119. Of the three 
hypocephali the third alone bears the name of 
the person for whom it was made. This reads 



«= mini 
Lsdr inter hen Zed-he)- mad kheru mes nebt per 
TJza-du madt kheru ' The Osirian priest Zed-her, 
true-voiced, born of the Lady of the House 
T7za-au, true- voiced.' 

The hypocephalus appears to have had its 
origin in connection with chapter clxii of the 
Book of the Dead. From the rubric of this 
chapter we learn that a figure of the cow 
Hathor was to be fashioned in gold, and placed 
upon the neck of the mummy ; and that an- 
other was to be drawn upon papyrus, and 
placed under the head, the idea being to give 
" warmth " to the deceased in the underworld. 
After the XXVIth Dynasty the cow-amulet fell 
into disuse, and the drawing upon papyrus 
developed into the hypocephalus, upon which 
the cow always remained an important figure. 
Papyrus was almost entirely abandoned in 
favour of more durable material, such as linen, 
stucco, and rarely bronze. The fashion, how- 
ever was not long-lived, and did not survive 
the fall of the XXXth Dynasty. 

Taking the largest specimen as an example, 
the figures are as follows. First line : Nehebha 
holding the uzat eye. Although here pictured 
as an ape, Nehebka is in reality the serpent-god 
whose worship was carried on at Heracleopolis. 
He stands, here, in front of the seated figure of 
Horus-Min, behind whom is an nzai-headed 

ddess. Then follow the cow of Hathor, and 



the four genii of the dead. Behind these there 
is an interesting group, consisting of a lotus, 
a lion, and a ram, which occurs in chapter 
clxii of the Book of the Dead [line 5] in the 
form N(~ 2§^ (1 "%\ M. . Following this group is 
a pylon croAvned with the head of Khnemu ; 
the god Horus-Ra holding the -¥- diikh; and 
finally the kheper or scarabeus. Second line : 
the Sun-boat navigated by Horus and two apes, 
Isis and Nephthys being conspicuous among the 
occupants ; the youthful Horus seated above 
the jjj|r tempest [?] ; the Moon-boat steered by 
Harpocrates ; and the goddess Nut and scara- 
beus. Turning the hypocephalus round we 
notice the Four-headed ram-god, in whom the 

spirits 5£$ ' °f th e f° ur elements, Ra [fire], 
Shu [air], Geb [earth], and Usar [water] were 
said to be united. 1 In this form the god was 
worshipped at Mendes ; and an inscription 3 
speaks of him as the Jn a & — - ' Fourfold 

god in the land of Mendes,' £■ — - Anep being 
his shrine in that city. Two small apes, the 
final degradation of the eight adoring cyno- 
cephali may be noticed. These represent the 
four primeval pairs of gods of chaos, whose 
names were Nun and Nunt [moisture], Hehu and 
Hehut [air], Kekui and Kekuit [darkness], G-ereh 
and Gereht [rest] ; being called collectively 

"TT ftl ' Kheme'im^ a miswriting of im^Ll i- 
Above, there are, three boats : the first contains 
Horus, the second Horus-Sept, and the third 
Khepera. Finally there is the double god 
who personified the rising and setting of the 
sun. Figures such as these just described 
are to be found on nearly all the known 
hypocephali, however erratic the inscriptions. 
Nevertheless, as may be seen from the two 



1 Beugsch, Thes. 4te Abt. 734 ct scq. 

2 Ibid., Oase, pi. xxvi. 1. 27. 
Ibid., Thes. 4te Abt. G72-3. 



THE INSCRIPTIONS. 



6 J 



smaller specimens, they may be greatly cut 
down, and are subject to much degradation of 
form. 1 Cemetery G. Dvn. XXX. 

42. Besides the above inscriptions there are 
one or two which may be noted, taken from 
steles and other objects so much damaged as 
not to have been worth preserving. 

I. Limestone stele, originally coloured. A 
figure is repre- 
sented stand- 



u 



i^k?^<L1i 111111 



AAAAAA A/VWV\ 



i^ 



vi 



<=> D 



IIP 

HP 

III 



ing before a 
table of offer- 
ings, and the 
accompanying 
inscription, 
above and in front of it, reads Seten 

de hetep I sd/r neb D[edu] 

dmakhu Icher neter ad 

hhet neb infer uabt ne lea ne sdhu bdti 
smer udti A . . . em-hetep reu-f nefer .... 
' The King gives an offering to Osiris 

Lord of Dedu reverence with 

the great god .... all good and pure 
things, for the ka of the Royal Sealer, 
the Chiefly Companion, A . . . em-hotep, 

surnamed ' Cemetery G. Dyn. XI. 

2. Limestone stele in three divisions, of which 
the two lower are destroyed. In the upper 
portion three figures sit before a table of 
offerings. The first represents a male named 

(J ^c 1 Anlch at an ne Sba 

' Ankh-at, born of Sba ' ; the second a female 



1 Eeference should be made to : Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch. 
vol. vi, 37, 52, 126, 129, 170, 185, 187; vol. vii, 213; 
vol. xix, 146. Liedemann, Religion, p. 298. Rev. Arch. 
1862, vi, 129. Archacol. xxxvi, 1855, 163. Catalogue of 
Edinburgh Nat. Mus. 1900, p. 8. Leemans, in Trav. du 
Congres des Orientalistes a Leide, 1881. Catalogue of 
Turin Mus. 



named .... //</-/' dri rn Sba ". . . . hotep, 
boni of Sl>a'; and the fchird a male whose 
name is destroyed. Around the edges there 
are seten <l< hetep formulae to Osiris Lord of 
Abydos, and [Anpu] Lord of Ta-zeser, that 
they may grant />■ r hheru offerings to the Km. 
Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIII. 

3. Remains of a limestone stele, inscribed 86 
n< ... se§h Ij'SiUn null i/r I'siir I 'it- nefer . . . 
'Son of the scribe of the accounts, the uab- 



PUP 

ill! 



IPJ 

i i i 
i i i 



n 




<=4 

priest of Osiris Un-nefer . . .' The rest of 
the long inscription is completely obliterated. 
Cemetery G. Dyn. XVI. 

4. Painted wooden box, now fallen to pieces, 
of Heru-maakheru, who is mentioned on plate 
lxxiii. It was inscribed as follows : — 



H 

AAAAAA 

I ^ 

f\ AAAAAA 

*l D 

H 



A -«- 



i 



\h 



IIP 



u 



ill 

fi 



II 



111 



ppp 

Mi 

pip 



u 






iii 



U 



IB 

ill 

iii 



u 

i <=> 

HI 
1 



1 



II 



m 



im 



u 






U 



IIP 
iii 

iM 
III 



1A 



III 
III 



■ 



As will be seen, it gives seten de hetep formulae 
to Osiris and Anpu for the benefit of the 
Osirian hexi-L-u-priest Heru-maakheru. Ceme- 
tery G. 'About Dyn. XXVIII. 



53 



INDEX. 



Anilines I, portrait of 




. 30 


Anubis ..... 






42, 45, 51 


„ II. • • 


30, 31 


,, represented . 






. 36 


,, „ called se Asar . 


. 32 


Ap — Ka ..... 






. 3 


,, „ cartouches of 


. 32 


Ap, Apa 






3 


Ab, scribe. ...... 


. 29 


Ape 






. 25, 50 


,, Aben, city. 




. 49 


Architrave of Antef V 






. 23 


Ab amulet 




. 39 


„ ,, Tahutmes III 






. 30 


Ad or Adu 




27, 41 


Arrow-head, ivory . 






. 21 


Adzes of copper 


. 


. 23 


,, bronze . 






. 25 


„ model 




. 30 


Assa. ..... 






. 28 


Aegean pottery of 1st Dyn. 


. 6 


Auhet-ahu, Queen 






. 29, 31 


,, „ „ „ date confirmed 


. G 


Axes of copper 






. 23 




. 51 


,, model .... 






. 30 


Agathodaemon ...... 


. 25 


Azab ..... 






. 3,8 


Ahyt of Khentamenti 


. 48 


., inscription of . 






. 5 


Akhenaten, erasure of cartouches by 


. 30 










Alabaster, carved ..... 


. 7 


Baboons, green glazed 






. 25 


vases ... 6, 7, 16, 


17, 18, 34 


Bakt-mut 






. 44 


,, in foundation deposits 


32,33 


Bay 






31, 45 


Alphabetic marks ..... 


. 23 


Bead, lazuli, of Psamtek . 






. 25 


Altars of offerings ..... 29, 


32, 42, 48 


Beads ..... 


16, 1* 


], 24, 


25, 34, 38 


Amenhotep I . 


. 30 


,, carnelian 






. 18 


,, „ portrait of. 


. 30 


,, network of 






36, 40 


„ ,, temple of . 


. 30 


,, packet of 






. 16 


,, II, Ka-name of ... 


. 30 


Beard, ebony .... 






. 36 


,, ,, Sed festival of . 


. 30 


Beetle, serpentine . 






. 23 


,, III, glazed plaque of 


. 31 


Bener-ab, bracelet of 






. 5 


Amen-neb. ...... 


. 44 


Beryl amulets .... 






. 38 


Ameny .... 




29, 43 


Bird-bones . 






. 18 


Ami as 




48, 49 


Bird-bone, pattern on 






7 


Amulets . 


23, 24, 25, 


37, 38, 39 


Bird, limestone . . . . 






. 25 


,, original order of 


• 


. 38 


Birds on tree, painted 






. 23 


Anhur 


. . 28, 


41, 44, 47 


,, on trial-piece . . . . 






. 31 


Animals chipped in flint 


■ a a 


. 12 


Black incised pottery, foreign . 






. 5 


Ankh 


• 


. 25 


Black-topped ,, . . . 






. 6 


Ankh-at . 


• • 


. 51 


Blue glass fish . 






. 31 


Antef I, figure of 




. 28 


Bone netter . 






18, 24 


,, ,, temple of . 


• 


. 28 


,, splint, broken . . . . 






. 38 


., v . . 




. 9 


Bones 






. 39 


,, ,, architrave of 


. 


. 28 


,, disturbed at burial. 






17, 18 


„ ,, columns of 


• . 


28, 41 


,, loose in grave 






. 39 



54 




ABYDOS I. 










Book of the Dead .... 


38, 50 


Construction of tombs .... 15, 36, 37 


Borer of copper .... 


. 7 


Contracted burial 






15, 35 


Box, canopic ..... 3 


3, 3G, 38, 40, 48 


Copper adze 








. 23, 30 


Bracelets, flint ..... 


. 10 


,, axe 








23, 30 


„ ivory .... 


. 5 


,, borer 








. 7 


,, shell .... 


. 17 


,, chisel . 








. 23 


,, slate . 


. 17 


,, cutting-out tool 








. 23 


Brazier ..... 


. 44 


„ in foundation deposits . 






30, 32, 33 


Breccia pediment .... 


. 34 


Correlation of dating of remains 






19—22 


Broken splint bone .... 


. 38 


Counterpoise or menat 






. 30 


Bronze arrowhead .... 


. 25 


Crescent flints . 








12, 26 


„ figm-es of gods 


. 32 


Crocodile, flint . 








. 23 


,, hypocephali .... 


. 38 


,, buhl' 








. 25 


Bulbous root ..... 


. 36 


Crystal cup 








. 5 


Bull's head amulets .... 


23, 25 


Cubit of slate . 








. 25 


,, ,, foundation deposits 


. 32 


,, division of 








. 25 


Burial, cut-up ..... 


. 17, 18 


Cursive writing, earliest 








.3,4 


Burials, undisturbed 


. 18 


Cutting-out tools 








. 23 


Buto, city . .... 


. 41 


Cut-up burial . 








17, 18 


Button ...... 


. 24 


Cylinder . 

ivory . 








23, 24 

. 24 


Canopic box ..... 3' 


», 36, 38, 40, 48 


jars . 






19, 22, 23 


Carnelian amulets .... 


. 38 


,, seal . 






. 23 


,, beads .... 


. 18 




,, in foundation deposits 


32, 33 




Cartonnage ..... 


36, 38, 49 


Da-Khnum ........ 7 


Cartouche of Aahmes II . 


. 32 


Dating of tombs 






19-21 


,, ,, Mer-en-ra 


. 41 


,, of flints 






8, 11, 12 


„ „ Nectanebo I 


. 33 


„ pottery 






. 6 


> * >j >i -t-t • 


. 33 


,, ,, ushabtiu . 






38, 39 


„ erased .... 


29, 30, 42 


Decease shown by menat, counterpo 


se 




. 30 


,, plaques .... 


. 32 


Den 






4, 6, 15 


Carved alabaster .... 


7 


,, flints of 






. 12 


., ivory 


. 5 


Dep, city 






. 41 


,, slate ..... 


. 5 


Deposits, foundation 






30, 32 


„ wood 


7 


,, ,, materials of 






. 32 


Caulfeild, A. St. G 


2 


Direction of tombs . 






. 15 


Cemetery, G 


1,34 


Dog (?) mummy 






. 40 


,, ,, inscriptions 


42, 48-51 


Dolomite vases, gold-capped 






7 


Chisel, copper ..... 


. 23 


Draughtsman, ivory. 






. 24 


Christie, II. L. . 




2 


Drawing of flints .... 






2, 10 


Clay coffins ..... 




15 


,, ,, inscriptions . 






2 


,, sealing of Bo . 




4 


,, pottery .... 






. 12 


,, „ ,, Shepseskaf 




27 


Du as variant for da 






. 8 


Cobble paving in graves . 




17 


Dwarf, drawing of . 






. 5 


Coffins, clay ..... 




15 




,, model ..... 


35, 36, 48 




,, wood ..... 


35, 36, 38 


Erased cartouches XII Itb Dy n. . . . 29,42 


Coloured scenes . . . . . 


. 30 


XVIIIth Dyn. . 




. 30 


Comb flints ..... 


. 12 


Erpa ...... 




. 43 


Commander of archers . . . . 


42, 45 


,, ha . 




41, 42, 43 


,, troops 




45 


Errors in hieroglyphs 






41, 


43, 45, 48 



I \ 1 1 E \ . 



66 



-o doors .... 

.. fringe .... 

F< '-par, green, in foundation depos 


its 


. 27, II 
. 5 
. 32 


•i felspar in f dation di | 
Grind 


12,25 6 


Fire-rings, potter}' . 

Pish, 1)1 nc glass .... 

Fish-hook 

Flakes, flint 

Flint animals 

,, bracelets .... 


. 25 
. 31 
. 24 
. 8, 12, 25 
. 12 
. Ki 


Hi. Queen 

Hia sign ...... 

//<( prince of 'I'll. 1 ... 

Haa-ab ra, plaque of .... 
Haematite .... 

amulets 


. 3 
4 
. 17 
. 32 
. 16 
38 


,, combs ..... 


. L2 


Hall, pillared, XVIIIil, Dyn. . 


. 29 


., core ..... 


. 11 


II ir itones 


. 1H 


,, crescents ..... 
>■ disc ...... 


. 12 
. 11 


Hapi-men .... 
Hathor ..... 


■J'.), 19 
. 43 


,, flakes ..... 


. 8, 12, 25 


,, COW cif 


. 50 


,, hoes ..... 


. 11 


Haunehi 


. 32 


,, knives ..... 


. 8, 10, 11, 16 


Hawk, mummj ....'. 


. 39 


i, ,, wear of 


. 11 


Hay, Hayt 


. 3 


,, saws ..... 


. 12 


Head, granite ...... 


. 28 


,, scrapers ..... 


. 7, 8, 11 


,, jasper 


. 31 


,, working in successive reigns 


. 8 


,, quartzite ..... 


. 32 


Floor-supports .... 


. 14 


,, steatite ..... 


. 31 


Forehead pendants .... 


. 23 


Heart scarab ...... 


. 39 


Forked lance, model 


. 24 


Hem sign ...... 


. 4 


,, ,, connection with Pesh-Jcen ai 


nulet . 2-4 


Hemi-discs of alabaster .... 


32, 33 


Foundation deposits, materials of 


30, 32 


Hcrj 


28, 42 


,, „ of Talmtmes III 


. 30 


Her dap aa 


. 17 


Furniture ..... 


. 31 


Ileru, seal-bearer ..... 


. 32 


,, temple .... 


. 25 


Heru-maa-kheru ..... 


35, 36 






Ilcsi-Jia priest ..... 


48, 49, 51 






Hieroglyphic inscriptions, oldest known . 


.3,4 


Gazelle ...... 


16, 17 


Hippopotamus' head .... 


. 26 


Genealogies .... 




35, 47 


Hoes, flint ...... 


. 11 


Genii, four .... 


. 3C 


, 38, 39, 40, 50 


Hora, limestone figure of . 


. 31 


„ holding knives 




. 36 


Horn cup of Mena ..... 


7 


Glass amulets .... 




. 38 


Hor-nub, title ...... 


. 41, 48 


,, fish .... 




. 31 


Horus-names ...... 


. 3 


,, in foundation deposits . 




. 32 


Horus ....... 


. 50 


Glaze, green, in foundation deposits 




. 31, 32 


„ with head-dress of Amen 


. 32 


Glazed quartz 




. 25 


„ Min 


. 50 


Glory of Ea 




. 44 


„ Ra 


. 50 


God, Min, ink-drawn 




. 4= 


Horuza ....... 


39, 49 


Gold cap .... 




. 25 


Hotep-du-Neit ..... 


. 8 


,, capped vases . 




. 7 


House of Bread ..... 


. 24 


Gold foil hotep mat . 




. 6 


Hyaena ....... 


. 8 


,, ornaments .... 




. 31 


Hypocephali bronze .... 


38, 49, 50 


„ ring .... 




. 34 






,, strip of Aha 




. 8 


Implements, Hint ... 7, 8, Id, 11, 


12. 16, 25 


Grains of corn 




. 32 


Ink drawing ....... 


. 31 


Granite head ..... 




. 28 


,, ,, on vases . 


. 1 


pylon 




. 27 


Inlaid glass eyes 


. 38 


,, shrine ..... 




. 32 


Inlay, ribbed ....... 


. 25 


Great One of Southern Tens 




. 43 


,, jasper head from . 


. 31 



W 7 5 2 s 



56 








ABYDOS I. 




Inscribed objects of foundation deposits . . .30 


Limestone figures, kneeling 


29, 42 


„ cylinder jars of King Ka . 






3,4 


„ of Hora 


. 31 


Inscriptions, earliest known 






3,4 


,, mortar .... 


. 33 


Iron in foundation deposits 








32 


,, sculpture of Nectanebo I 


. 33 


Ivory arrow-head 








24 


,, stand of Amenhotep III 


. 31 


„ bracelet . 








5 


Lintel of Tahutmes II and III 


. 30 


„ draughtsman . 








24 


Lintel of Tahutmes III 


. 30 


„ inlay 








24 


List of offerings .... 


. 30 


„ pin 








24 






Jasper girdle tie 
,, head 
„ in foundation deposits 








39 
31 
32 


M. tombs 

Mua-kheru ..... 
Mac Iver, D. K. 


. 14—20 

. 31 

1,4 




Magic, sympathetic .... 


. 17 


Ka=Ap 3 


Malachite face-paint .... 


. 17 


Ka 






.4,5 


Mastabas 


. 34 


„ inscriptions of . 






. 3 


,, wrongly called pyramids . 


. 36, 37 


„ tomb of . 






. 3 


Mat- sign p 


. 4 


Ka 






44,45 


Measurements of columns of Antef . 


. 28 


„ emblem . 






. 29 


Mena — Aba 


. 5, 6, 7 


,, name, inversion of . 






. 3, 4 


,, flints of ..... 


. 8 


,, of Osiris . 






. 44 


Menat, or counterpoise, worn by deceasec 


. 30 


Keeper of the cattle in Kamese 1 


;' temple 




. 31, 45 


Mentu-em-hat ..... 


31, 17 


Keni-Amen 






. 45 


Mar, see Superintendent. 




Kha-kau-ra 






. 1 


Mer-en-ra, blocks of . 


27, 41 


Kha-sekhemui, bowl of 






. 4, 5 


Mer-neit, flints of .... 


8, 12 


„ flints of . 






. 8 


Mer-se-ka ...... 


. 7 


,, figure of Min 






. 4 


Mer-se-kha ..... 


. 4, 6, 8 


,, vases of . 






7 


Mertiu-heru ..... 


35, 36, 48 


Khay .... 






. 31 


Mert-tefnut 


35, 36, 48 


Khemenu .... 






. 50 


Min, oldest drawn figure of 


. 4 


Khentamenti . 






29, 32 


Min-mes, high priest of Anhur . 


. 44 


,, chantress of 






40, 49 


Model coffin ..... 


35, 36, 48 


,, sistrum-player of 






. 48 


„ flint knife .... 


. 24 


Khepera .... 






. 50 


,, forked lance .... 


. 24 


Kher-heb 






41, 42 


,, shell of alabaster . 


. 30 


Khnum .... 






. 50 


,, tools of foundation deposits . 


. 30 


Khnumy, priestess . 






. 34 


Monkeys, green glazed 


. 25 


Knives, flint 




8, 


10, 11, 1G 


Mortar, limestone .... 


. 33 


Kom-es-Sultan . 






. 9 


Mummies ...... 


. 36—39 


Koptos, workmen of 




.1,2 






Kudu (?) on painted pot .... 




. 23 


Naqada, Menitc tomb 


8, 11 




Nar-mcr ...... 


4,5 


Lazuli amulets ....... 38 


Nebta-ahyt ..... 


. 38, 49 


,, bead of Psamtek . 






. 25 


Nebui Sma ..... 


. 5 


Lector, or Khcr-hch . 






. 44 


Nectanebo I, sculpture of . 


. 33 


Levels in stratified town . 






. 10 


,, II, temple of . 


32, 33 


Limestone bowl 






G 


Nefertiut, chantress of Khentamenti 


40, 49 


cup 






. 5 


Nefert-uben ...... 


. 29 


figures . 






2G, 33 


Neheb-ka ..... 


. 50 


,, ,, of Assa 






. 28 


Neithotcp vase of ... . 


. 5 


,, ,, of Tahutmes 


III . 






30 


Nekht, Prince ...... 


28, 41, 42 



INDEX. 



57 



Nekht-hor-heb, cartouche of 

,, statues of age of 

Nes-her . 
(letter, hone 
N umerical signs 
Nut, representations of 



Objects in M. tombs 

Obsidian amulets 
Offering chambers . 
Offerings, altars of . 
,, list of 

„ per-kheru 
,, table of . 
Older of pre-Menite King 
Osiride statuettes 
Osiris, bronze figures of 

,, high priest of 

,, Jca name of . 

,, Khentamenti . 

,, mummified 

,, shrine of 

,, temenos of 

„ temple . 

,, ,, inscriptions 

„ titles of . 
Ox-bones in tomb 



. 33 
. 33 
35, is 
L8, 24 
. 4 
19,50 

17, 18 

. 38 

. 34 

•-', 12, 18 

. 30 

11. 18, 51 

. 45, 51 

. 5 

35, 36, 38, 39 

30, 32, 45 

. 46 

. 44 

29, 45 

. 32 

. 9 

1, 9, 27 

9, 27 

41—48 

45, 46, 48, 51 

. 17 



Pa-asi 44 

Paint, white . 18 

Painted pottery 23 

Aegean 6 

,, ,, ,, date confirmed ... 6 

,, sculpture ....... 30 

Palettes, slate 17, 23, 24, 25 

Panelling 3, 4 

Papyrus 36, 38 

Paraffin wax, for preserving wood and cartonnage . 38 

Pe, shrine of Buto 41 

Pectoral 38, 40 

Pediment of breccia ....... 34 

Pedu-asar ......... 39 

Pedu-en-ast 39, 49 

Pendants 23 

Perabsen . . 4, 6 

Pcr-hhcru offerings 42, 44, 48, 51 

Pesh-hcn amulet .24 

,, ,, ,, connections of . . . .24 

Pilgrim bottle 6, 34 

Pillared court ........ 34 

hall 29 



P ivory 


. 'J I 


1 ' MIS (if t lis . , 


. 15 


Plaques of foundation deposits . 


31,32,33 


Porphyry ...... 


. 21 


amulets .... 


. US 


Portrait-head ol Vilm.i .1 


. 30 


,, \ i ii. ■ 1 1 1 ii .i . |i 1 


. 30 


,, ,, in granite . 


. lis 


,, ,, in quartzite . 


. 32 


sphinx of Tahutmes III 


. 30 


ton of bodie i in M graves . 


1... L6 


Pot-marks. ..... 


. 23 


.... 


. 12, 13, 11, is 


,, Aegean ..... 


. 6 


,, Black incised 


5, 24 


,, Black topped 


. 6 


,, dating of ... 


. 6 


,, discs 


. 24 


,, figures 


. 26 


,, fire-rings .... 


. 25 


,, hand-made .... 


. 6 


,, kine ..... 


. 26 


,, of foundation deposits . 


. 30 


,, painted .... 


. 6 


,, styles in various reigns 


6, 13 


,, wavy-handled 


6, 35 


Prehistoric burials .... 


34, 35 


Pre-Menite kings .... 


3—5 


,, ,, ,, order of 


. 5 


Priest, high, of Amen 


. 47 


,, ,, ,, Anhur 


. 44, 47 


,, ,, ,, Hathor . 


. 49 


,, ,, „ Isis and Min . 


. 47 


,, Mut 


. 49 


,, ,, „ Osiris 


. 46, 47 


„ „ Un (?) . 


. 49 


,, of Amen Ila 


. 47 


„ „ Hathor and Uazit . 


. 39 


,, ,, Shu and Anhur 


. 44 


,, ,, Sokar . . . . . 


. 31 


,, hesi-ka . . . . . 


48, 49, 51 


,, scm ...... 


. 46 


,, iuib ...... 


. 42 


Psamtek ....... 


. 33 


,, bead of .... . 


. 25 


Ptah-em-ua, statue of ... . 


29, 31, 45 


Publication of results .... 


. 1,2 


Pylon, granite ...... 


9,27 


Pyramidion of granite .... 


. 32 


Pyramids, so-called, of Abydos. 


36, 37 



Qa, inscription of 



58 












ABYDOS I. 








Qa, gold of (; 


Scribe, royal ..... 




.44, 45, 49 


„ stele of 










. 6 


Sealing of Ro . 






4 


Qema, sign 










. 3 


,, ,, Shepses-Kaf 






. 27 


Qemat of Amen 










. 45 


Sealings ..... 






. 24 


„ ,, Isis . 










. 44 


,, material of . 






. 5 


,, ,, of Khentamenti . 










40, 49 


Sebekhotep III. 






. 9 


„ ,, Osiris 










. 44 


,, ,, ,, inscription of . 






29, 42 


Quartz, glazed . 










. 25 


,, and Nefertuben 






29, 42 


Queen of Zer, hair of 










. 5 


Seel festival of Amenhotep II . 






. 30 


Qufti workmen . 










. 1,2 


Sekhet, bronze figure of 






. 32 




Son priest .... 






. 46 




Scmer-uati ■ 






41, 51 


Ea ■ 44,48 








7 










Sen sign .... 






Ra-aa-Kheper-en (Tahutmes II) 






30, 48 


Senb, scribe 






. 43 


Ra-Harmakhis .... 








. 45 


Sequence dates, prehistoric 






. 22 


Ra-Kha-seshes-Nefer-hotep 








. 29 


of Pre-Menites . 






. 5 


Ra-Kheper-Ka 








. 42 
. 50 


Serpent, pottery 






. 25 


Ram ..... 








Sesh sign . 






4 


..god 








. 50 


Shell, notched . 






. 24 


Ra-men-Kheper (Tahutmes III 


) • 






. 44 


Shells, string of. 






. 24 


Ramessu I ka name . 
,, II ankh of . 








. 31 
. 25 


Shepses, ka name of Shepses-kr 
Sickles, see Flint saws. 


d 




. 27 


,, ,, cartouche 








31, 45 


Silver pilgrim bottle . 






. 34 


„ gateway of . 








. 29 


,, in foundation deposit 






. 32 


Ra-nub-Kheper (Antef V) . 








. 41 


Sit-Hathor 






39, 43 


Ra-sekhem 








. 29 


Sit-Pepy .... 






. 29, 43 


Ra-sekhem-nefer-hotep 








. 29 


Skulls of animals in graves 






16, 17, 18 


Recesses .... 








. 33 


Slate palettes for face-paint 






. 17, 23, 24, 25 


Reed-sign, a 








4 


Sma ..... 






. 5 


Bes sign .... 








3 


,, vases of 






. . . 5, 7 


Resin, cake of . 








. 33 


Snaa-ab .... 






. 43 


Ribbed glazed tiles . 








. 25 


Snaring nets . . 






. 23 


Ring, gold. 








. 34 


Sokar .... 






. 45 


Ring stands 








. 14 


,, sanctuary of . 






45, 46 


Ro, position of . 








. 4, 5 


Sphinx of Tahutmes III . 






. 30 


,, sealing of . 








4 


Spindle whorls . 






. 24 


,, tomb of 








5 


,, dating of . 






. 25 


Bo sign .... 








4 


Standard-hearer of Amen . 






. 45 


Roofing of tombs 








. 15, 37 


Statues .... 






31, 33, 46 


Royal tombs, flints from . 








. 8 


Statuette .... 






. 44 


„ ,, objects from 








.7,8 


Statuettes, Osiride . 






. 35, 36, 38, 39 


„ ,, pottery from 








. 3, 4, G 


Steatite amulets 






. 38 


Rush mat ..... . ' 36 


,, beads . 
,, head 






. 16 
. 31 


Salt, packets of . . 39 


Stele of Ameny and Sit-Pepy 






29, 43 


Sandstone figure 












. 29 


,, ,, Aulirt-ahu 






29, 31 


Sarcophagi 












. 34 Ki 


,, ,, Khay and Ymamu 






. 31 


Saws, flint 












. 12 


,, ,, Narmer 






. 8 


Scarab and w i 












39, 40 


,, ,, Neklit . 






28,4] 


Scrapers, Hint . 












. 7, s, II 


„ ,, Qa • 






. 6 


Scribe 












. 43, 18 


Steles .... 7,8,27,29,43,41,45,51 


,, of accounts 












. 51 


Stone grinders . 






25, 26 



INDEX. 



59 



Stone, vases, see Vases. 




Tombs (M.), ro 1 


15, 36, 37 


Stones in M. graves ... 


. 16 


,, ,, in relation to town 


evels . 19 


Stratified town ..... 


. 10 


kings 


tombs . 20 


,. ,, flints of 


. 10- 12 


Tools, copper ..... 


7, L5, 2 


,, ,, levels of . 


. 10 


'[',ii jo of pottery figure 


. 26 


,, „ pottery of . 


. 12—15 


Town site, of earlj dj nasties . 


. 10 


Superintendent of cattle . 


. 31, 45 


,, levels 


. 10 


,, granary 


45, 47 


,, ,, in relation to Bequenoe dates 


. 22 


,, ,, palace .... 


. 43 


,, ,, ,, ,, ,, kings' t. milis 


. 21 


H n temple 


. 41 


,, M. tombs. 


. 19 


>, ,, treasury 


. 13 


Trained workmen 


1, 2 


,, ,, zazanut 


. 46 


Tray, alabaster 


. 7 


Suten-Ap ...... 


. 3 


,, wooden ...... 


7, 37 


Suten du hotep formula . . 42, 43, 


45, 48, 49, 51 


Trial-piece 


. 31 


Suten La ankh ...... 


. 29 


Triangular pot ..... 


. 11 


Suten-khaker ...... 


41, 42, 43 


Turn 


. 15 


,, ,, in connection with uurlu 


. 42 


Two-linger amulet . . . . . 


. 39 


Suten sign 


.3,4 






„ connection with qema 


. 3 






Syenite cup . .... 


.5, 7 


C7a&-priest 


. 42, 51 


Sympathetic magic ..... 


. 17 


Uah-ab-ra 


. 35, 48 






UarUi of the prince's table 


29, 42, 43 






,, in connection with suten blinker 


. 42 


Ta-se-nekht ...... 


35, 36, 48 


Undisturbed burials .... 


. 18 


Table of offerings ..... 


. 45, 51 


Un-nefer ...... 


31, 44, 46 


Taharqa, Vizier of . 


. 31 


,, ,, granite statue 


. 31 


Tahutmes II and III reigning together 


. 30 


,, and wife, granite group 


. 31,11 


,, ,, ,, „ lintel of . 


30, 43 


Up ast 


. 7 


,, coffin of . 


35, 48 


Up-uat ....... 


29, 42 


Tahutmes III 


9, 30 


Ur-maau, scribe .... 


. 45 


,, „ foundation deposits 


30, 32 


Userteseu I 


. 9 


Temenos of Osiris 


. 1,9,27 


,, ,, slab of . 


28, 42 


„ excavation of ... . 


9, 10 


,, ,, basement of slab of 


. 29 


,, plan of 


. 9 


„ HI 


. 1 


„ tombs in .... . 


. 14 


Ushabti boxes 


. 38, 39 


,, wall ...... 


. 27 


Ushabtiu 


38, 39, 40 


Temple of Anhur ..... 


. 41 


,, dating of . 


. 38, 39 






,, fixed number of. 


38, 39 


,, Osiris ..... 


. 27 






,i ,, age of 


. 1, 9, 27 


Uza-eye ....... 


. 39, 50 






Uza-headed goddess 


. 50 


,, ,, columns of . . 


. 28 




,, ,, halls of . 


. 29 






,, „ rebuildings of 


9,31 


Variants of names . . . . . 


. 35 


,, ,, statues of 


28, 29 


Vase grinders ...... 


. 12, 25—6 


„ „ steles of . 


. 27—29 


Vases of stone ...... 


12, L6, 18, 20 


„ Barneses ..... 


31,45 


,, cylinder . . . . . 


19, 22, 23 


Thiy Nefertari 


31, 46 


,, handled ...... 


. 12 


Thompson, Herbert ..... 


. 41 


Vulture and uraeus . 


32, 48 


Throne-name derived from lea-name 


. 28 






Tiles, ribbed 


. 25 


II \irtw of the prince's table 


29, 42, 43 


Tomb pits ...... 


. 34 


Wax, paraffin, for preserving wood ai.d cai 


tonnage . 38 


Tombs (M.) early dynastic 


14, 15 


Weigall, A. E 


. 2, 7, 27 


,, ,, „ ,, objects in 


. 15, 18 


,, ,, ,, on inscriptions . 


. 41—46 



60 



ABYDOS I. 



Weight . 

White paint 

Wooden framing in tombs . 

tray . 
Workmen, Qufti 
,, trained 



. 25 
. 18 
. 16 
7, 37 
■ 1, 2 
. 2 



Ymamu 31 



Zazanut, mer 



4G 



Zed . 
Zed-her . 
Zer . 

„ flints of 
Zeser 

Zeser-ka-ra 
Zet . 

,, flints of 

Zigzag pattern on bird's leg bone 

,, Aegean pottery 







35 


35, 


37, 


38 
G 
8 
5 

43 
8 




6, 


37 

7 
G 



NEW Yuiik t iu ill ' 

WASHINGTON W*i Ba«£ 
• LIBRARY 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. TOMB OF KING KA-AP. 



Nf 



Bfl 




I 





y 



11 








Pi 






4 







13 




UNIVERSITY 



NEW YORK 
W0M SQUARE CBUB* 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. TOMB OF KING KA-AP. 








18 



'# 




20 






21 




7 



f J 



n 




m> 



y 




$k 








26 




F.R 



■NNKM » 



1 : 1 



ABYDOS. luMB OF KIN., >, ai>, anu QUEEN HA, 





.•.. 






(Ml 




© 




il 





V 










:)H 



ii 



ii 



,r, 






VI 






"<ty 




* 



«/ 



:'., 



\h 



II 



II 




llll 

u 



i | 



fill 



17 



m n 



46 



T t>« r 




46 



H 



$L 




> 

ill 



4 : 3 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. INSCRIPTIONS. \c. 



IV. 




6. VASE OF NEITHOTEP 




7 1:1 PLAIT AND FALSE FRINGE. TOMB OF ZER. 



8. VASE OF ZER 





10. BOWL EDGE OF ZER. 



9. POTTERY FROM ZER. 





. 








11. DWARF OF ZER. 



12. 13. IVORIES OF ZET. 



14. VASE OF W. 



, UBR^ 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. INSCRIPTIONS. 



V. 




1 : 2 ALABASTER OF AZAB. 
See R.T. i. vi. 2. vii. 10. viii. 11 




4 : 3 VOLCANIC ASH OF QA. 




— , 








4 : 3 GOLD FOIL OF QA. 



v- 



1:4 QUARTZOSE STELE OF QA. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
GTQN SQUARE COLLEGE 
LIBRARY • 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: POTTERY. 



VII. 







LlMESTO N£ B'19 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: AEGEAN POTTERY. 



VIII. 







|v * \ 





NEW YuRK UNIVERSITY 
WASHIkSTON SQUABE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



1 : 3 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: STONE VASES. 



B. 

SYENITE 




B. 15 

CRYSTAL 






r -n 



v. 



DOLOMITE MARBLE 






j3 





v, 



DOLOMITE MARBLE 




12 




^ 



' V. 

ALAB. 



13 




15 



14 





F.P. 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: ALABASTER VASES. &C 



X. 



t:3 



16 17 







20 



z:3 



21 




C £ D/4 8 TRAY V. 
22 23 



H0f\N CUP BIJ 



GROUP Z II 



z=f 



/ 



32 




24 




28 



/ / 



33 



r 

v 




25 



34 



ID 



r 
1 



J 



Ai.ABASTEM 

Vases . 
All V. 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

• LIBRARY 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: IVORY AND EBONY LABELS. 




Cffi?^^ 



-r 




J%^ 



XJ 



Tirr 











< 



x- 



iff 



/Jj] 



II 



Z . iv. 




r>^ 



b 



j±. 



a 



~u 




T. at. 



T\T y Du.p>L. of R.T. j XV. 16 



i^nr 






T iv. 



^ragggge 







L 



AD* 



n\v tts 




T efc. 




10 



|j5^ 




q. iv . 




WFW YORK UNIVERSITY 

mmm sum eg 



2 : 3 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: MARKS ON S'ONE VASES. 



XII. 




itc R.T H vn ft 



11 




13 







16 





19 



(til 



\y 




'21 



II 



A\ 



-Jk 




22 



7=T 




23 



n 



24 



/t 



25 




26 




1 : 6 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: STELES. 



149 




NEW YORK UhlVEKSlTY 


WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 


• LIBRARY 



2 : 7 



MENA 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. WORKED FLINTS. 

ZER. 2ET. MERNEIT. 



XIV. 



DEN. 




AZAB. 



ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. WORKED FLINTS. 

MERSEKHA. QA. PERABSEN KHASEKHEMUI 



XV. 



X 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY \ 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES WITHOUT HANDLES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XVI. 



>, 1 




p? 



(lit 






27 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES WITHOUT HANDLES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XVI 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIB'' ' 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS, FLINT KNIVES WITH HANDLES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XVI 




1 11! 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES WITH HANDLES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XIX. 




1 ; 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT HOES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS; LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XX. 
















NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, TAILED. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XXI. 




104- 



105 



108 



no 




NfeW ¥§RK UNIVERSITY 

mmm mm mm 

* LIBRARY 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, VARIOUS. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XXII 




140 




149 




^s 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, ROUND, &C. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES 



XXIII. 




15S 



165 



166 





2.5- 





169 



,<^=CT 



OJx 170 





183 



... 




184 




185 




5T 




1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, LONG; FLAKES. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XXIV. 




199 200 



208 



214 216 



219 




HEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON mm COUEGf 



LlB;A.;y 



J 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT FLAKES. TIPPED, WORKED, ROUNDED, SQUARE. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XXV. 




io io 



254 




281 




282 



283 



287 



289 



291 



284 







NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY . 



1 : 2 



ABYDOS. FLINT ANIMALS, SAWS, CRESCENTS. COMBS. 

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES. 



XXVI. 





295 



pz2T2Tg 



298 




299 



E^3oo • "2Sj302 ~:=3esd 



.30 




301 




306 



308 




309 



313 




310 






MEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASH SdUftRt COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



1 : 3 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: STONE VASES. 



XXVII. 









ALAB. 




BASALT 





SLATE 1 8 



4-0 




45 






40 




85 




• 



STEATITE 



20 



14. 





^ 




13 



SHELLY LIMEST. 



NUMBERS STATE INCHES ABOVE SAND. 




UK. LIV.EST. 




ALAS. r | 



LIBRARY . 



1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXVIII. 





. library 



1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXIX. 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

. LIBRARY 



1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXX. 




ft. 75 



76 



77 



WSHINfilON SQUARE COLLEGE 

° LIBRARY 



1 :6 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXX 




NEW YORK UhWEfiSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUftSE COLLEGE 

• LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXXII. 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 


WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 


■ LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 

106 



XXXIII. 




. LIBRARY 



1:6 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXXIV. 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. 



XXXV. 



•141 nru: «H3 «f 14.4 m g - jE"'" 1 m| H|ho 1 »i5o ^ST if 

^ w " w P w w ™ fB 




153 r 154 







•155 
o 



• ••# 



22 27 



152 



5 
162 




90 





206 



1VERSITY 



MGTON SQUftRt UlLLbnt 
LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TOMB M12: POTTERY. 



XXXVI. 




SLATE 




Also Form 
M 19, 60 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 13 : POTTERY. 



XXXVII. 









. l\BRMW_ 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TOMB M13: POTTERY. 





NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WSHINGION SQUARE C0U£GE 

LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. TOMBS M 14, 15, 17, 18: POTTERY. 



XXXIX, 



M 14 



24 
26 




27 




28 



21 








M 15 





4, 6 



1 to 3 10 to 15 




M17 




M 18 




1 :6 



ABYDOS. TOMB M16: POTTERY. 



XL 




4-7 












NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE GQLLE6E 

LIBRARY • 




ABYDOS. TOMBS M 19 ; 24, 25; 26: POTTERY. 



XLI. 







76 



70 72 

79 83 

89 91 

170 




71 






77 
80 





74 



















50, 67 *ee M12.45 
60 M12.47 


M 24 


M 25 




^4JL 4 


M 26 










■ -; ^S^SS 


•' 










HHI 3 ■ 




^■MHT 4 















NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQOARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY • 




1 :3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M12: ALABASTER VASES. 



XLII. 







NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLlfSE 
LIBRARY J 



1: 3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 12 : STONE VASES. 



XLIII. 




8LATE 



TOMB M 13. 




BAS 





A LAB. 




BAS. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



1 : 3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 14, AND OTHERS: STONE VASES. 



XLIV. 




* 




51 





40 




54 




TOMB M 15. 




22 




23 



TOMB M 17 




52 



27 



SLATE 



#- 



SLATE 



YELL. LIMST 



ALL ALABASTER UNLESS STATED 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



1 :3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 16 : STONE VASES. 









50 





SLATE 





51 



IVORY 




44 




SLATE 



ALL ALABASTER UNLESS STATED 



SYENITE 




LIBRARY 



1 : 3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 19 : ALABASTER VASES. 



18 






19 








23 



22 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEI 
• LIBRARY 




1:3 



ABYDOS. TOMB M 19. AND OTHERS: STONE VASES. XLVII. 




SLATE 








ALAB. 



VOLC. 



TOMB M 24 




PINK MARBLE 




BRECCIA 



TOMB M 25 




.ALAB 




PINK MARBLE 



TOMB M 26 




PINK MARBLE 




PINK MARBLE 




BRECCIA 



LIBRARY 



1 : 25 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: EARLY DYNASTIC GRAVES. XLVIII. 




M 24 




^>^^^W 



M 17 





M 25 



M 26 




M 14 



M 15 

\ 1 

I 

\<\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^s\\\\V v \\4> 






M 18 





1 







§\4^\\\\\\\^\\\\\^\^N>^^^^ 



^\\\\^^^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^\\^^§^ 




1 : 25 



ABYDOS, TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: EARLY DYNASTIC GRAVES. 



XLIX. 




M12 





M13 



M 16 



I NEW YORK - 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

. LIBRARY 



I :4 



ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: PAINTED POTTERY. SLATES. TOOLS. MARKS. 



in su,„ ... ,„ ( _ 




COPPER TOOLS. 



r 






> 



) J* 



%. 



ISi 



M-13 



M 13 



M-l* 



M i3 



n 



20 



M-13 

MARKS - v POTTERY. 



o K P 






V 



c> 



o^MIZiO on m, 15-45 M .|9.6o ) 





M 1327 M 1243 r\ 



-"TUX'S 

M N T7**i M-IW M 12-4-7 Ml3 - 2 8 



M ijzs M| 9 69 



M'lJiC 



NUMBERS SHEW LEVEL IN INCHES ABOVE SAND; M NUMBERS ARE THOSE OF TOMBS. 



LIBRARY ! 



2 : 3 



ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: AMULETS, &C 



LI. 



n 



Calcifc 




<s 




Crteri £lotze 






35 



C'ten 5ti'tieii(inc 



^ C^iiKjb" 




SUft 



OM 7 ue 6r itrji! 1 0r " Se.r/>! 



4.'3 




5 late SKtii 




43 




4-:3 



/^To~l^ 



Vio/ti' Gid ze 



4-9 



(irttn C^aze 



Cl.iy Calender 




fi 



1 




16 



/vo ry 



'7 



I 90 
BUck Po tCar if 



18 19 




SZa te 



Ivory 




I v o r y 




^mM^0^ 




Flln.C 




FLtlnt 




S Ke-LL 



P o tLe-r y 



<^ 



pc> 




« 



fa 




^^ a y Se-a.linjs f y o m. W.oF OslylS Te m. en. o 5. 




4:3 



o 



S o n e. 




Co ppe.r 



Biu-e Waze Button 



F.P. 



NEW 

w^man mm m% 

LlRRAoy o 



2 : 3 



ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: BEADS, WHORLS. &c. 



LIT. 




Ca.rnclia.n If S hells 103 




103 



^MooQOCOr^^c 



Car nc-li an, Garnet, frShtll. 50 bu.M-19 



—MXKKWXKHK^ 



Green Glaze 91 B^c k SUatiU Crtun Glaze- 



-KHKh '-OQOQOO 
- £ a r h e, Z ( a n 



MI4 








4:3 



Blu-e. Glaze. 




ik^ 



Laz.iMli 3e.-a.cL 



•■ | £ w YORK UNIVERSITY 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. EARLY DYNASTIES. 



Llll. 




1. BONE. 2. FLINT. 3. GOLD CAP. 4, 5. QUARTZ. 6. LIMESTONE. 7-11. GREEN GLAZE. 12. SLATE. 




23, 34. STONE VASE GRINDERS. 



35, 36. POTTERY FIGURES. 3V. STONE FIGURE. 38-42. POTTERY. 



"V YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



1 : 4 



ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF MERENRA, AND FALSE DOOR. VI. DYN. LIV. 




ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. IVth_XI|th DYNASTIES. 




8. STELE OF NEKHT. 



9. OFFERING SLAB (?) OF USERTESEN I. AND BASE, 10. 3-5. COLUMN OF ANTEF V. 



1 NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



1 : 10 



ABYDOS. ANTEF V: PARTS OF COLUMNS. 



LVI. 



< 

m 4 



V 



1 



«A 



IfiJril 

ir 






1 



^=7 



II 



1 © 

tA 
tl 




Ml 
if 

— — L-HJ5Z 



2 




A»»»^»»V 





ft 

W9\ 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



1 : 4- 



ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF OSIRIS: STELE OF NEKHT. 



LVI 







^rfy 










a 



Of^fc^ 






V^^iPlf f^^l 



* O , - crra 



>4-l £-&? 



? 



^ 



Pi. 






C <=> X «■ ° '.&■ Cp 1—4. &»d 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASMON SQUftRE COUfBE 

LIBRARY 



1 : 6 



ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: USERTESEN I. 



LV 




^*» 





"o 



IT 





>* 






r% 



^ 






m= 








H. P 



1 : 4 



ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF SEBEKHOTEP III, &c 



LIX. 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE CQU£i 
• LIBRARY 



4: 9 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: INSCRIPTIONS XII. -XIII. DYN. 



LX. 



Y 



| ' iili, M 



.£A.J 




ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XVIII™ DYNASTY. 



LXI. 




3. GREEN GLAZE. 



FOUNDATION DEPOSITS. 

4. LIMESTONE, AMENHOTEP III. 5. MODEL TOOLS, VASE, &c, TAHUTMES III. 




%£§^m? 






■k - 






- M - r - ' 











6. SLAB OF INSCRIPTION. 



7. JASPER HEAD. 8. STEATITE HEAD. 9. BLUE GLASS FISH. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COUfBE 

LIBRARY 



2 : 13 



ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF AMENHOTEP 



LXII 




H.P 



1 : 8 



ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF AMENHOTEP I. 



LXIII. 









L.C 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE CflUfGE 



1 : 8 



ABYDOS. TEMPLES OF AMENHOTEP I. AND TAHUTMES III. 



LXIV. 




NEW 



^TUN^S^ 



A0E1QN 



BMiBBE 



LIBRAE 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XIX™ DYNASTY. 



LXV. 




1. FRAGMENTS OF STATUES. 



2-4. LIMESTONE STATUE OF PTAHEMUA. 










5-7. BACK AND HEAD OF GRANITE FIGURE OF UN-NEFER. 




8. LIMESTONE FIGURE OF UN-NEFER. 



9, 10. UN-NEFER AND TIY, GRANITE. 



11. STELE OF KHAY. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE C8UH" 

LIBRARY 



1 :4 



ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF XVIII- XIX DYN. 



LXVI. 





\l 



-I? ■< 






•™"i i* i 



N/ 





M£IIV 



L.C. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
o LIBRARY 



1 :4- 



ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF PTAHEMUA, MENTUEMHAT, &C 



LXVII. 










i 

i.i 







UNNEFER. 



- ; 



MM j 

w 



K 



BAY. 



URMAAU. 



i 



ft '^ 



fir. 



\ 



■/T 7 



UNNEFER. 




-J^ 



itgfdi^itr 



c 



MENTUEMHAT. 



MENTUEMHAT. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY 



1:8 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS; TOP OF GRANITE SHRINE OF APRIES. &C. LXVIII. 




LIBRARY 



1 : 3 



ABYDOS. TABLES OF OFFERINGS, XXVI. DYN. 



LXIX. 



\ r=T^ 



S 



£j •+• TAm £ i A IJIEiiliT^&fl^ 




LtUll<Ot~ t \A ! t 



fXP-telXVP 1 




UiJgHU*kiK*A>MoLflf 



H.R 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 
• LIBRARY 



ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XXV|th_xXXth DYNASTIES. 



LXX 




6,8,9. FOUNDATION DEPOSITS OF APRIES : 7. OF AAHMES. 



10. ALTAR OF AAHMES. 




11. DEPOSIT OF NEKHTNEBEF (?). 



12—14. STATUES OF AGE OF NEKHTHORHEB. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE COUffiE 

LIBRARY 



2 : 5 



ABYDOS. PORTIONS OF PAINTED COFFIN OF TAHUTMES. 



lx: 





: n?* r r&ss ^5$ ^w * -*-* "f^L *LL^^a^ —"-f-^- -! r. ■ — 




T* iT> ^ Pf ^ISn^Tj-^ 




^s#S4s Kr 







WDM! i^^MMi^fc^ 1 ^^* 1 ^ 




-? AV. r' 



*-^^^Kr^gp^4 f 



^Rl5SMM^iSfffi|iL s M I {(I ={f JlHteSSHf 




WMCTOIY mm C0U£fif 
LIBRARY • 



3: 8 



ABYDOS. CANOPIC BOX AND MODEL COFFIN OF MERTI-HERU. 



LXXI 




"'^ZMl^f^ 




n 



m%\4L2U 




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE 

LIBRARY • 



ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS ON COFFINS, XXVI. DYN. 



LXXIII. 



BOX OF TASENMEHT, G 57. 



t 

3 

% 

■ 1 
A. 

9 CI 
O 

|? 

£r 

in 

A 



n 

a/ 






2 



COFFIN OF 
MERT-TEFNUT. 
G S76- 

(//A 

A. 

H 
L 

Sfll 

^3 



^2. 

i-s- 

I* 



GILT 
CaRTONNAGE 

OF 

NEB-TA-AHIT, 

G50<*- 



ITml 



i -a- 



n 
A- 









COFFIN OF 
TAY-NEKHT. G 57=- 







Ph. 
V 



li 









Ik 
if 

I? 
¥0 



fcr 



^ 



h 
Ji 



l\2 



,1 















■2 

I 



^P 



*2 



r 






2 



-fcr 
lib 



^ 



rtL 



ill 



& 












COFFIN OF 
MERTI-HERU, G571- 



n 



4.4 






i -o- 



n a 



tf 



r? 



P 



& 

/P 



xf^^ 



^ 



i 9 



n_i 



*% 



rtL 



'"J 



^ 

m 



% 



w 



1^ 



K 






I 




COFFIN OF 
HERU-MAKHEI 
G57*- 



or^a 



&r 



sr 



^ 



^ki 



ft 
^® 

IP 






nip 



I C-3 




3 



It 



n 

n 






/t 



a—? n 



H-F-P- 



^ 






i -e- 



^ 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE C0LLE6E 

LIBRARY 



SITY I 

il 



ABYDOS. CEMETERY G. XXV|th_XXX"th DYNASTIES. 



LXXIV. 




1,2. MODEL COFFIN OF MERTIHERU. 



3. MODEL COFFIN OF HERU. 




8. LIMESTONE MODEL CAPITAL. 



9. HEAD OF PTOLEMAIC SANDSTONE COFFIN. 



YOKn UNlYt 
WASUUtBTQN SQUARE t 

LIBRARY 



1 : 5 



ABYDOS. SARCOPHAGI OF XXX. DYN. 



LXXV. 



HAPI-MEN. 



NEFERT-IUT. 

CP 

4. 

y 
9 






j 



- © 



^1 
I 1 



■ ■■ 

nL 

So 
a -ft 



PEDU-EN-AST. 




0=4, 



4, 



coo 






^ 



^«^ 



Q ¥ 



W/s^ 







^g 



n — & 



z#^> 



n 



ip 






£5 



s 



>2L 



t 

O 

Q 

1 

IT 



Q=^ 



^^ 



IUA 







6 

■ CO » 



^ 






asm 



z«^ 

I 



<^a 






tt. 



o 



aJfc, 



1 



Qj nnnn 



f 



£ 



n 

"fill 

(1 fr 3 



It 



HOR-UZA. 






4r 



r i 

r i 

a 

1! 



— * 



o 
I 



// 



■ r 

in — 



Ml 

t 

4r 



1 \ 






! r 



i n 



1 IK 

'V 

o 
i U 






— X 












r i 






r i 



^0 



<^fc 






® 

r* 

i u 

-tt- 



il 

A**VA 



t r 

y*' 



i i i 



Li 

■ r 

4f 



ft 













A^ 



PL 

I fr 



T! 

Si 
f ) 



vt 



fett 






11 



AAAAA 



MiT 



MEW YORK UNIVERSITY 
MISSION SQUARE COLLEGE 
. LIBRARY 



ABYDOS. BRONZE HYPOCEPH ALUS, TOMB G 50 B. 



LXXVI. 




2: 3 



ABYDOS. BRONZE HYPOCEPHALI, TOMB, G 50. 



LXXVI 





H.P. 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

WASHINGTON SQUARE C0LLE6E 

LIBRARY 



2 : 5 



ABYDOS. AMULETS OF ZEDHER: TOMB G 50 B. 



LXXVI 



Q 



O 



£3 





V 



Q 



ORDER AS FOUND. 




ORDER AS FOUND. 



i 1 



k LJLJ o S5as ^f 




cy~> 



O T. 



J lr.l 



(r.- I 



s g 






It. *• 



z z z 



c P P g^-MP-^ 9 






= <j •; 



z z 






.« ■;. 



P V 5 _ O 



(i„^^> 



ORIGINAL ORDER, INNER SERIES, STONE. 




< ^w < 



^ 



lll,£a 



ORIGINAL ORDER. OUTER SERIES, GLAZE. 



ABYDOS. CEMETERY G. XXXth DYNASTY. 



LXXIX. 




3. BRONZE HYPOCEPHALUS OF ZEDHER : 4, 5. OF THE FAMILY OF ZEDHER. 




6. COFFIN OF 
IMHOTEP. 



7. COFFIN OF 
HERUZA. 



FOOTCASE AND PECTORAL 
OF HAPI-MEN. 



10. CORNER OF DOMED 
TOMB. 



"■■■ YORK UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 



1 : 50 



ABYDOS. SECTIONS AND PLANS OF TOMBS. 



LXXX. 



, M 17 ,4, 

i Is- 



M 19 



M 13 



n^Tl . M 24 

!' J . 



M 25 M 2 6 
LEVELS 







-..v>..< . •■ 
• -• • • . 



COBBLE -PAVING 
5 A.N D 



M 14 



1_ 



T 'n.^N;^ ifB ST*>t"-- 



«>'A~'N S 



'ZA 



M 16 



1 



I 



M 12 



_M 



1 : 200 



G 68 




G50 




G61 



G57 




E HOR-UZA A - - C - - 

F PEDU-EN-AST B ZEDHER 

G PEDU-ASAR D NEB-TA-AHIT 



HAPI ^ 3 
-MEN < 

> 

PLAN 




IN TEMENOS. 

n-nn-rf>^T-r T] 



G58 















L_jigiir 


























PLAN 



SECTION 




/ 



^-s* 



WSHMftW 



UBR^ 









, ns , 1 tuuo'"w r r .i ("V 




^162 02392 5077 




■> 



(lit* 



!■'■ 



tit 



HJ.{ 



if H 





! |!;| f|l! llllll 

!> !i! | Rfl wvM I'll i|l|i l ii"!| IP 'If- 

i ( *i* + *]i *> W ( *'i*»ii'f*}^s is**?! VImkUih*!